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Give the difference between gram negative and gram positive.
Gram negative has an outer membrane that prevents stain reaching the peptidoglycan, giving it a negative Gram stain result. Gram positive has only peptidoglycan and thus stains positively.
All phototrophs are...
Anaerobic and lithotrophic.
Give what is meant by the suffix -genic and the suffix -trophic.
- -genic = produces
- -trophic = uses
Give the temperature classifications for organisms.
- Psychrophile (pron. see-kro-file): Optimum of 4 degrees
- Mesophile: Optimum of 39 degrees
- Thermophile: Optimum above 45
- Hyper-thermophile: Optimum above 80.
How do psychrophiles maintain their membranes and proteins?
- Lots of short length, low melting point fats in membranes.
- Lots of alpha-helices in proteins to promote fluidity.
How do thermophiles maintain their membranes and proteins?
- Long, high melting point fats in membranes.
- Proteins heat-stabilised using disulphide bridges.
What is the equation for generation time?
Time taken / generations passed
How do you calculate generations passed in a batch culture?
(Log.Population in current generation - Log.Initial population) x 3.3
Give 3 approaches to quantifying cell number.
- Direct: using cell chambers e.g. Petroff-Hausser
- Indirect: spectrophotometry, nephrometry
- Automated: fluorescent tagging, FACS
In continuous culture, what is the relationship between μ and D at steady state?
What is myxomycota?
Naked cytoplasm fungi that appear as slime moulds.
What causes brown rot?
What virus causes gastroenteritis in children up to the age of 5?
Which bacterium causes syphilis?
What bacterium causes plague?