PHM 121 Test 2
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Name at least 3 parts of an order.
- Patient's name
- Patient's ID number
- Room and Bed number
- Drug Orders
What must be on every order that comes in?
Doctor's Signature or Need Nurses signature if a verbal order.
What are the benefits of learning the commonly used abbreviations in pharmacy?
We can tell what to give a patient, how much, route, when and for how long.
What are the 5 IV solution characteristics?
- Free of visible particulate matter
ph is the degree of acidity of a solution. There is a scale that is used to measure acid and alkalinity. What is the range of the scale and which is which?
- The scale range is 1 - 14 with 7 being normal.
- 1-6.9 is acidic and 7.5-14 is alkaline.
What are the different types on tonicity?
- Isotonic - which is equal or same
- Hypertonic - which is greater concentration than what is in the cell.
What NaCI strength is referred to as normal saline or NS?
0.9% and is closest tonicity to normal human blood.
How much IV solution should be given to any one patient?
It all depends upon the condition of the patient
What is maintenance therapy?
Refers to the patient's routine daily fluid and electrolyte needs.
What are vials made up of?
Glass or plastic container with a rubber stopper held in place by a metal band; closed-air system.
What are Ampules made up of?
Entirely of glass, weakened at the neck to break; open-air system. They are also single dose only.
How are IV drugs supplies?
Solution and powder
What needs to be done with powders and how do they come?
Powders come in vials only and have to be reconstituted prior to use with proper diluent.
What is the proprietary name of a drug?
The brand name
What is the common name or non-proprietary name of a drug?
What official publication are drugs listed in?
What must be listed on the drug label package information.
- Brand name
- Generic name
- Official publication
- Total amount of drug
- "Caution -Federal law prohibits dispensing without a prescription"
- name and address of the manufacturer or distributor
- Lot Number
- Expiration date
- Precautions specific to drug
- Approved routes of administration
What are the appropriate storage temperatures for drugs?
- Room Temp: 59-86 F
- Refrigerated: 36-46 F
What are some of the common IV drugs?
- Anti-infectives - Ancef (cefazolin), rocephin (ceftriaxone)
- Antiemetics - Zofran (ondansetron)
- H2 Antagonists - Tagamet (cimetidine)
- Misc - Benadryl (diphenhydramine)
Describe incidence of incompatibilities.
An IV admixture is said to be incompatible when the prescribed drugs cannot be combined safely and satisfactorily; may be between tow drugs or between a drug and the solution.
What are the different types of incompatibilities?
Physical, Chemical, and therapeutic
What are physical incompatibilities?
Visual change may be recognized as a change in color, evolution of a gas, development of a haze, or formation of a precipitate, easiest type to detect because it can be seen.
What are chemical incompatibilities?
Occurs when two drugs react to cause the chemical degradation of one or both drugs.
What are the factors affecting incompatibility?
- Ph of admixture
- Degree of Dilution
- Buffer Capacity
- Order of Mixing
What is the most common cause of incompatibilities is a combination of two drugs that results in a unstable balance for one of them.
What is buffer capacity?
Ability of a solution to resist a change in pH when either an acidic or basic alkaline substance is added to it.
What is the order of mixing?
By adding the electrolytes such as calcium gluconate, last and mixing well after each addition, the electrolytes are well diluted when they come into contact with each other and the chance of precipitation is minimized.
Where can you get sources of drug information?
- Package Inserts
- Incompatibility Charts
- Other standard IV Computer Programs
- Trissel's Handbook on Injectable Drugs
- Facts and Comparisons Book
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