PSY 499 3 & 4

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PSY 499 3 & 4
2013-05-24 16:22:13
Intro psych review

Ch's 3 and 4
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  1. Sensation
    Raw information from the senses
  2. Preception
    Process through which people take raw sensations from the environment and give them meaning, using knowledge, experience, and understanding of the world
  3. Accessory structures
    • 1st step in sensations process
    • Structures, such as the outer part of the eye, that modify a stimulas
  4. transduction
    • 2nd step in processing senstation 
    • Process of converting incoming physical energy into neural activity
    • takes place at the receptors
  5. Receptors
    Cells specialized to detect certain types of energy and covert it into neural activity.
  6. Adaptation
    • Decreasing responsiveness to an unchanging stimuli
    • example: eye glasses, wristwatch, smells
  7. Coding
    Translates the physical properties of a stimulus,   such as the loudness of a sound, into a pattern of neural activity that tells us what those physical properties are.
  8. Absolute threshold
    • Minimum amount of stimulus energy that can be detected 50 percent of the time.
    • Varies because of internal noise and response criterion
  9. Internal Noise
    Spontaneous, random firing of nerve cells that occurs because the nervous system is always active.
  10. Response Criterion
    Internal rule a person uses to decide whether or not to report a stimulus.
  11. Signal Detection Theory
    Mathematical model of what determines a person's report of a near-threshold stimulus.
  12. Sensitivity
    Ability to detect a stimulus
  13. Weber's Law
    Law stating that the smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy (just-noticeable difference) is a constant fraction of the intensity of the stimulus.
  14. Difference Threshold/Just-Noticeable Difference (JND)
    Smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy
  15. Wavelength
    Distance between peaks in a wave of light or sound.
  16. Frequency
    Number of complete waves or cycles, that pass a given point per unit of time.
  17. Amplitude
    Distance between the peak and the baseline of a wave.
  18. Cornea
    Curved, Transparent, protective layer through which light rays enter the eye
  19. Pupil
    Opening in the eye, just behind the cornea, through which light passes
  20. Iris
    Part of the eye that gives it its color and adjusts the amount of light entering it
  21. Lens
    part of the eye directly behind the pupil
  22. retina
    surface at the back of the eye onto which the lens focuses light rays
  23. Order that light enters the eye
    Cornea -> Pupil --> Iris--> Lens--> retina--> fovea--> blind spot
  24. Rods
    Photoreceptors in the retina that allow sight even in dim lit but cannot discriminate colors
  25. Cones
    Photoreceptors in the retina that are less light-sensitive than rods but that can distinguish colors
  26. Fovea
    Region in the center of the retina; where the eye focuses incoming light
  27. Optic Nerve
    Bundle of fibers that carries visual information to the brain
  28. Blind Spot
    point at which the optic nerve exits the blindspot
  29. Feature detectors
    Cells in the cortex that respond to a specific feature of an object
  30. Hue
    Essential color determined by the dominant wavelength of light
  31. Trichromatic Theory
    Theory of color vision stating that information from 3 types of visual elements combines to produce the sensation of color
  32. opponent-process theory
    Theory of color vision stating that the visual elements sensitive to color are grouped into red-green blue-yellow, and black-white pairs
  33. Pitch
    How high or low a tone sounds; pitch depends on the frequency of a sound wave
  34. Timbre
    Quality of a sound that identifies it
  35. Pinna
    Crumbled part of the outer ear that collects sound waves
  36. Eardrum
    Tightly stretched membrane in the middle ear that generates vibrations that match sound waves striking it. Also known as the tympanic membrane
  37. Cochlea
    Fluid-Filled spiral structure in the inner ear in which auditory transduction occurs
  38. Basilar Membrane
    Floor of the fluid-filled duct that runs through the cochlea
  39. Bones of the ear
    • Hammer (Malleus)
    • Anvil (Incus)
    • Stirrup (Strapes)
  40. Place theory
    Theory of hearing stating that hair cells at a particular place on the basilar membrane respond most to a particular frequency of sound
  41. Volley Theory
    Theory of hearing stating that the firing rate of an auditory nerve matches a sound waves frequency also know at the frequency-matching theory
  42. Olfactory Bulb
    Brain structure that receives messages regarding smell
  43. Papillae
    Structures in the mouth on which taste buds are grouped
  44. Gate control theory
    Theory suggesting the presence of a gate in the spinal cord that either permits or blocks the passage of pain impulses to the brain
  45. Analgesia
    Reduction in the sensation of pain in the presence of a normally painful stimulus
  46. Proprioceptive
    Referring to sensory systems that tell us about the location of our body parts and what each id doing.
  47. Kinesthesia
    Proprioceptive sense that tells us where the parts of the body are with respect to one another
  48. Convergence
    Depth cue resulting when the eyes rotate to project the image of an object on each retina
  49. Binocular Disparity
    Depth cue based on the difference between the retinal images received by each eye
  50. Looming
    Motion cue whereby rapid expansion in the size of an image fills the available space on the retina
  51. Stroboscopic motion
    Illusion in which light or images flashed in rapid succession are perceived as moving
  52. Top-down processing
    Aspects of recognition guided by higher level cognitive processes and psychological factors such as expectations
  53. Bottom-up processing
    Aspects of recognition that depend first on information about stimuli that come up to the brain from sensory systems