PSY 499 3 & 4
Card Set Information
PSY 499 3 & 4
Intro psych review
Ch's 3 and 4
Raw information from the senses
Process through which people take raw sensations from the environment and give them meaning, using knowledge, experience, and understanding of the world
1st step in sensations process
Structures, such as the outer part of the eye, that modify a stimulas
2nd step in processing senstation
Process of converting incoming physical energy into neural activity
takes place at the receptors
Cells specialized to detect certain types of energy and covert it into neural activity.
Decreasing responsiveness to an unchanging stimuli
: eye glasses, wristwatch, smells
Translates the physical properties of a stimulus, such as the loudness of a sound, into a pattern of neural activity that tells us what those physical properties are.
Minimum amount of stimulus energy that can be detected 50 percent of the time.
Varies because of internal noise and response criterion
Spontaneous, random firing of nerve cells that occurs because the nervous system is always active.
Internal rule a person uses to decide whether or not to report a stimulus.
Signal Detection Theory
Mathematical model of what determines a person's report of a near-threshold stimulus.
Ability to detect a stimulus
Law stating that the smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy (just-noticeable difference) is a constant fraction of the intensity of the stimulus.
Difference Threshold/Just-Noticeable Difference (JND)
Smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy
Distance between peaks in a wave of light or sound.
Number of complete waves or cycles, that pass a given point per unit of time.
Distance between the peak and the baseline of a wave.
Curved, Transparent, protective layer through which light rays enter the eye
Opening in the eye, just behind the cornea, through which light passes
Part of the eye that gives it its color and adjusts the amount of light entering it
part of the eye directly behind the pupil
surface at the back of the eye onto which the lens focuses light rays
Order that light enters the eye
Cornea -> Pupil --> Iris--> Lens--> retina--> fovea--> blind spot
Photoreceptors in the retina that allow sight even in dim lit but cannot discriminate colors
Photoreceptors in the retina that are less light-sensitive than rods but that can distinguish colors
Region in the center of the retina; where the eye focuses incoming light
Bundle of fibers that carries visual information to the brain
point at which the optic nerve exits the blindspot
Cells in the cortex that respond to a specific feature of an object
Essential color determined by the dominant wavelength of light
Theory of color vision stating that information from 3 types of visual elements combines to produce the sensation of color
Theory of color vision stating that the visual elements sensitive to color are grouped into red-green blue-yellow, and black-white pairs
How high or low a tone sounds; pitch depends on the frequency of a sound wave
Quality of a sound that identifies it
Crumbled part of the outer ear that collects sound waves
Tightly stretched membrane in the middle ear that generates vibrations that match sound waves striking it. Also known as the tympanic membrane
Fluid-Filled spiral structure in the inner ear in which auditory transduction occurs
Floor of the fluid-filled duct that runs through the cochlea
Bones of the ear
Theory of hearing stating that hair cells at a particular place on the basilar membrane respond most to a particular frequency of sound
Theory of hearing stating that the firing rate of an auditory nerve matches a sound waves frequency also know at the frequency-matching theory
Brain structure that receives messages regarding smell
Structures in the mouth on which taste buds are grouped
Gate control theory
Theory suggesting the presence of a gate in the spinal cord that either permits or blocks the passage of pain impulses to the brain
Reduction in the sensation of pain in the presence of a normally painful stimulus
Referring to sensory systems that tell us about the location of our body parts and what each id doing.
Proprioceptive sense that tells us where the parts of the body are with respect to one another
Depth cue resulting when the eyes rotate to project the image of an object on each retina
Depth cue based on the difference between the retinal images received by each eye
Motion cue whereby rapid expansion in the size of an image fills the available space on the retina
Illusion in which light or images flashed in rapid succession are perceived as moving
Aspects of recognition guided by higher level cognitive processes and psychological factors such as expectations
Aspects of recognition that depend first on information about stimuli that come up to the brain from sensory systems