Chem - 2

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Author:
misbah
ID:
220998
Filename:
Chem - 2
Updated:
2013-05-25 15:17:20
Tags:
solutions concentration solubility colligative properties acids bases
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  1. Solubility
    • -ΔG = spontaneous, solute is soluble
    • +ΔG = nonspontaneous, solute is not soluble
  2. Mole fraction (X)
    X = number of moles in compound/ total number of moles
  3. Molality (m)
    m = moles of solute/ kg of solvent
  4. normality (N)
    N = # of equivalents/ liters of solution

    or 

    N = (molarity)(n)
  5. Solubility product constant


  6. Ion product
    to determine where the system is with respect to equilibria

    IP = same as ksp
  7. Vapor pressure depression: Raoult's law


    • PAvapor pressure above solution
    • X = mole fraction of solvent
    • Po= vapor pressure above solvent

    • When solute is volatile:

    B=solute
  8. Boiling point elevation
    De

    • i = moles of particles dissolved into solution/ moles of solute molecules
    • m = molality
  9. Freezing point depression
  10. Osmotic pressure
    Π = 
  11. Ka of weak acid
    • low ka = low pH/high pka
  12. Titrations
    • N= normaliy
    • V = volume
  13. pH of a buffer


    when concentrations are equal (log 1=0) ph=pka
  14. Formal charge
    group number - nonbonding electrons - 1/2bonding electrons

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