The urinary system part 1

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The urinary system part 1
2013-05-24 19:00:33
urinary system part

The urinary system part 1
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  1. Functions of the kidneys: regulation of blood ionic composition
    sodium potassium calcium chloride and phosphate
  2. Functions of the kidneys: Regulation of blood pH
    kidneys secrete H+ into the urine and conserve HCO-3 which are an important buffer of H+ in the blood
  3. Functions of the kidneys: regulation of blood pressure
    Kidneys secrete renin which activates the RAA pathway which increases blood pressure
  4. Functions of the kidneys: regulation of blood osmolarity
    by separately regulating water loss and loss of solutes in urine, the kidneys maintain a relatively constant blood osmolarity
  5. Functions of the kidneys: production of hormones
    the kidneys produce two hormones calcitrol, the active from of vitamin D, helps regulate calcium homeostasis and erythropoietin stimulates the production of red blood cells
  6. Functions of the kidneys: regulation of blood glucose
    the kidneys can use the amino acide glutamine in gluconeogenesis, the synthesis of new glucose molecules.  They can then release glucose into the blood to help maintain a normal blood glucose level
  7. Functions of the kidneys: excretion of wastes and foreign substances
    by forming urine
  8. kidneys
    paired reddish bean shaped organs located just above the waist between the peritoneum and the posterior wall of the abdomen.  The size of a bar of soap
  9. external anatomy of the kidneys: renal hilium
    near the centre of the concave border of the kidneys is an indentation called this. Through which the ureter emerges from the kidney along with blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves
  10. external anatomy of the kidneys: renal capsule
    the deep layer, is a smooth transparent sheet of dense irregular connective tissue that is continuous with the outer coat of the ureter.  It serves as a barrier against trauma and helps maintain the shape of the kidneys
  11. external anatomy of the kidneys: adipose capsule
    the middle layer is a mass of fatty tissue surrounding the renal capsule.  It also protects the kidneys from trauma and holds it firmly in place within the abdominal cavity
  12. external anatomy of the kidneys: renal fascia
    the superficial layer is another thin layer of dense irregular connective tissue that anchors the kidney to the surrounding structures and to the wall of the abdominal wall
  13. internal anatomy of the kidneys: renal cortex
    a superficial light red region of the kidney
  14. internal anatomy of the kidneys:renal medulla
    a deep darker, reddish brown inner region which consists of several cone shaped renal pyramids. The base of each pyramid faces the renal cortex and its apex called a renal papillae, points towards the renal hilum
  15. internal anatomy of the kidneys: parenchyma
    the renal cortex and renal pyramids of the renal medulla constitute the functional portion of the kidney called this
  16. internal anatomy of the kidneys: renal columns
    those portions of the renal cortex that extend between renal pyramids
  17. nephrons
    within the parenchyma are the functional units of the kidney
  18. papillary ducts
    urine formed by the nephrons drains into these which extend through the renal papillae of the pyramids
  19. minor and major calyces
    the papillary ducts drain into these cuplike structures. each kidney has 8-18 minor and 2 or 3 major.  The minor receives urine from the papillary ducts of one renal papillae and delivers it to a major
  20. renal pelvis
    from the major calyces, urine drains into a single layer cavity called this and then out through the ureter to the urinary bladder