highly contagious respiratory tract infection caused by viral infection of myxovirus influenzae.
influenza - what causes it?
transmission by inhalation of droplets most of the time and also through sharing food or drink
jaundice - define
yellow discoloration of skin caused by abnormally high levels of bilirubin pigment in blood
jaundice - cause
any condition that increases red blood cell breakdown, affecting metabolism in liver or retards excretion in bile
jaundice - signs and symptoms
yellow discoloration of white area of eyes, mucous membrane of mouth
jaundice - prehepatic
anemia - liver
jaundice - hepatic
jaundice - posthepatic
severe itching, foul smelling clay-colored feces and dark urine, gallbladder
What is the most common type of hepatitis?
kidney stones - define
formation of solitary or multiple stones caused by calcium salts, uric acid, cystine and magnesium ammonium in absence of substances that normally inhibit precipitation.
kidney stones - signs and symptoms
excruciating pain in upper outer quadrant of abs and flanks with referred pain to lower ab, low back leading to nausea. Cold, clammy skin.
Small collection of small particles in urine; pink urine from blood.
kidney - how to get rid of?
fluid intake and dietary alterations
kyphosis - define
deformity of spine that produces a rounded back caused by bad posture, arthritis, lung problem, ankylosing spondylitis
primary or first degree kyphosis
deformity of muscular origin
secondary or second degree kyphosis
tertiary or third degree kyphosis
from bony changes
leukemia - define
cancerous overproduction of white blood cells in bone marrow and lymph tissue, resulting in an abnormally large number of immature white blood cells in blood caused by mutations in genetic material of stem cells caused by viruses.
leukemia - signs and symptoms
onset of fever - abnormal bleeding from nose or gum with easy bruising
mild fever, weight loss, fatigue and bone pain
enlarged spleen, liver and lymph nodes
increased white blood cells
lice - define
external infestation of lice - wingless insects that feed on human and animal blood
body lice - signs
itching, especially on shoulders, back and buttocks, itchy, reddened, raised areas
head lice - signs
nits, pearl-gray or oval structures, found on hair shaft close to scalp; red raw scalp from scratching
pubic lice - signs
How much of liver required to function?
liver failure - define
inability of liver to meet the body's needs
liver - function
detox, production of biochemicals, and protein synthesis
lymphoma - define
cancer originating in lymph nodes (spleen and pancreas) and the other lymphoid tissues cause is unknown but may be viral
lymphoma - what is the cause?
unknown but may be viral
lymphoma - signs and symptoms
painless swelling of lymph nodes, tonsils, adenoids, liver or spleen, with rubbery feel with pressure on area around nodes
- fatigue, weight loss, and fever
lymphoma - who is more at risk?
epstein-barr virus and low immune disorder
measles - define
viral infection that produces skin rashes transmitted in air or in droplets from an infected person, enters respiratory tract traveling to blood via lymphatic
molluscum contagiosum - define
viral disease of skin spread through skin-to-skin contact, fomites or self inoculation
molluscum contagiosum - who gets it?
muscular dystrophy - define
group of congenital disorders characterized by a progressive wasting skeletal muscles, with no loss of sensation or neural activity caused by inherited lack of adequate muscle proteins.
muscular dystrophy - cause
lack of adequate muscle proteins, such as dystrophin
duchenne's muscular dystrophy - define
onset between 3 and 5, muscle weakness and hypertrophy in leg and pelvic region, affecting gait and posture.
landouzy-dejerine muscular dystrophy - define
weakness of muscles of face, shoulders and upper arms, progressing to all muscles.
muscular dystrophy - risk factors
genetic and males
myastenia gravis - define
autoimmune, neuromuscular disorder marked by muscle weakness and muscle fatigue caused by reduced availability of acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junction in muscle cells resulting in decreased efficiency of nerve signal transmission
myasthenia gravis - define
autoimmune, neuromuscular disorder marked by muscle weakness and muscle fatigue
myasthenia gravis - cause
caused by reduced availability of acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junction in muscle cells which results in decreased efficiency of nerve signal transmission and therefore impaired muscle function.
myasthenia gravis - who gets it?
mid to older women and women/men in older age
necrotizing fasciitis - define
a bacterial infection involving the fasciae surrounding muscles caused by bacterial flor in GI tract or microorganisms in skin.
necrotizing fasciitis - risk
deep trauma in tissue and abdominal surgery
necrotizing fasciitis - signs and symptoms
severe pain, skin is reddened with edema and loss of sensation
necrotizing fasciitis - massage recommendations
nerve entrapment syndrome - define
condition that results in continuous or intermittent compression of one or more peripheral nerves caused by repetitive movements creating pressure in surrounding areas.
nerve entrapment syndrome - massage therapy rec
1. familiar with distribution of nerves that can be entrapped with the origin, insertion and action of affected muscles,
2. stretch soft tissue along path of nerve in direction perpendicular to nerve and do not put pressure on the nerve.
3. stimulate weak atrophied muscles and relax overloaded/tight muscles
obesity - define
excess amount of body fat by 20% or more of the expected weight for person's age, sex and height. caused by intake of calories that exceed expenditure
obesity - what bmi?
greater than or equal to 30
osteoporosis - define
decrease in bone mass and bone density, resulting in porous, fragile bones caused by age, endocrine disorders or cancer
chronic, progressive disorder affecting the motor system caused by deficiency of neurotransmitter dopamine in basal ganglia and overactivity of acetylcholine
parkinson's disease - cause
deficiency of neurotransmitter dopamine in basal ganglia and overactivity of acetylcholine
parkinson's disease - signs and symptoms
TRAP (tremor, rigidity, akinesia, and postural instability)
- normal cognitive function with no sensory loss
- sudden sensations of heat and increased sweating.
parkinson's disease - risks
men, age 50 to 60, carbon monoxide poisoning, stroke, tumore in basal ganglia, drugs for schizophrenia and genetic mutations
plantar fasciitis - define
inflammation of plantar fascia and surrounding structures caused by excessive stress on foot near attachment of fascia to calcaneus bone
plantar fasciitis - signs and symptoms
pain in heel, made worse by walking
tenderness in fascia
muscle pain on plantar fascia
redness, swelling in plantar surface of foot
plantar fasciitis - risk
high arches, age 40 or oler, involvement in sports, long periods of standing or walking, poor footwear, high heels and weight gain
plantar fasciitis - massage therapy rec
ice massage, lymph drainage, effleurage and petrissage on lower back and legs.
heel that pain with tennis ball
pre-menstrual syndrome - define
physical, psychological, behavioral symptoms occurring 3-14 days prior to onset of menstruation that interfere with normal activities caused by changes in serotonin in brain brought by fluctuations in estrogen and progestrogene levels during menstruation.
premenstrual syndrome - causes
changes in level of serotonin in brain, brought about by normal fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone levels during menstrual cycle
premenstrual syndrome - relief?
diet, sleep and exercise
essential oils lavender, chamomile, rose
psoriasis - define
chronic, relapsing, inflammation disease of skin caused by unknown by may be related to keratinocyte migration rate and immune system
psoriasis - signs and symptoms
sharply demarcated patches of skin with white or yellow scales that loosely adhere to epidermis, red around patches, lifelong with cycles of remission
psoriasis - risk factors
age 30 or older, genetic predisposition, skin trauma, alcohol consumption, stress
psoriasis - massage rec
aware of increased risk for infection and essential oils
ringworm - define
fungal infection of skin caused by a fungus that thrives on cool areas, transmitted by contact with infected person or clothing, animal or soil
ringworm - risk factors
lowered immunity, children, pets, damp feet, shoes, public showers or pools
ringworm - treatment
topical agent 2-4 weeks
raynaud's syndrome - define
intense spasm of the arteries and arterioles in fingers and toes seen by swelling in fingers and toes
scabies - define
itchy skin infection caused by parasitic mites caused by sarcoptes scabiei that burrows into epidermis
scabies - risks
crowded living conditions, sharing clothes, bedding, towels
sciatica - define
painful condition resulting from pressure or injury to sciatic nerve caused by prolapse of vertebral disc and resulting pressure on nerve roots of sciatic nerve, narrowing of intervertebral canal
sciatica - nerve root
L4, L5, S1, S2, S3
sciatica - massage rec
avoid pressure, stimulation in area of sensory deficit and passive movement of joints without force.
sciatica - techniques
1. double-thumb at release of piriformis
2. double thumb at greater sciatic notch
3. supported thum to obturator internus
4. release from ischial tuberosity and great trochantor
scleroderma - define
progressive, widespread disease of connective tissue, cause unknown but most likely autoimmune
scleroderma - who gets it
young, middle aged women, african americans with genetic predisposition, exposure to silica dust, drugs, organic solvents and viral infections
scoliosis - define
lateral curvature of spine caused by unknown, associated with deformed vertebrae, muscular dystrophy, marfan's syndrome, cerebral palsy
Seasonal Affective Disorder - define
mood disorder characterized by symptoms of depression during winter caused by dysfunction in biological rhythms and changes in melatonin secretions from pineal gland and certain neurotransmitters (seratonin)
Seasonal Affective Disorder - massage rec
relaxation and exposure to light during day
shin spint - define
inflammation of periosteum, outermost connective tissue layer of bone, in medial side of lower leg caused by excessive use of posterior tibialis, soleus, flexor, hallucis longis, or flexor digitorum longus
spina bifida - define
congenital spinal defect in fusion of right and left half of one or more vertebrae, sometimes involving protrusion of spinal cord and meninges through gap caused by virus, radiation or toxic environment during pregnancy
spina bifida - cause
viral infection, radiation, toxic environment during first trimester of pregnancy when spinal cord and vertebrae develop
spina bifida - massage rec
avoid massage in lumbosacral area, passive movement, ROM, transverse friction around joint.
spinal cord injury - define
complete or partial damage to spinal cord at any level, resulting in loss of sensation, motor function and autonomic function caused by trauma and tumors
level C4 - define
tetraplegic, above head spared
level C5 - define
deltoid and biceps function, support of wrists and fingers required
level C6 - define
shoulder muscles, elbow flexion and wrist extension are normal
Level C7 - define
triceps and finger flexors and extensors
level T1-T5 - define
normal upper body
Level T6-T11 - Define
upper intercostal and back musculature control is normal
Level T12 - L3 - define
Ab and back control normal
Level L4 - Define
use of hip flexors and knee extensors
When is massage appropriate for Spinal Shock?
After the acute stage
Sprain - Define
stretching or tearing of ligaments, usually without displacement of or instability to joint caused by sudden sharp twist to join that stretches ligament and ruptures some fibers
ankle sprain on lateral border of foot that has been plantar flexed.
Ankle Sprain - Massage Rec
Knee Sprain - Define
partial or complete tear of one or more ligaments of knee joint to the MCL or the ACL
Strain - Define
excessive stretching or tearing of a muscle caused by acute or chronic mechanical overloading
Stroke - Define
sudden reduction of blood supply to areas of brain with signs of brain function disturbance that lasts more than 24 hours caused by thrombus or embolus blocked blood vessel
Acute Synovitis - Define
acute inflammation of synovial membrane lining of joint capsule caused by injury to joint.
Acute Synovitis - Massage Rec
Cold Pack, Squeeze and effleurage, vigorous massage without moving joint
TMJ - Define
Temporormandibular Joint Syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms associated with joint connecting lower jawbone and temporal bone of skulls caused by misalignment or laxity of ligaments and muscles.
Ankle Tendinitis - Define
inflammation of Calcaneal (achilles) tendon caused by overuse of gastrocs and soleus muscles
deep transverse friction massage and proximal areas
Pes Anserine Tendonitis - Muscles
popliteal tendinitis - define
inflammation of popliteal or semimembranous tendon of knee caused by repetitive knee flexion
popliteal tendinitis - who gets it?
long distance runners
popliteal tendinitis - massage rec
ice, passive ROM and friction massage
shoulder tendinitis - define
inflammation of supraspinatus or infraspinatus tendon at muscle-tendon attachment to humerus caused by acute trauma at shoulder, rheumatic diseases or postural misalignment
Who gets shoulder tendinitis?
tennis, swimming, baseball, raquetball
Shoulder tendinitis - massage rec
ice and deep moist heat with transverse friction in chronic stage
Tenosynovitis - define
inflammation of synovial sheath surrounding a tendon caused by overworking a muscle, stretching or wrenching a tendon, or bacterial
What are the two types of tenosynovitis and how do you get them?1
1. bacterial - bacteria enters into synovial sheath
2. De Quervain - inflammation of synovial lining common sheath of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis as tendons pass over distal end of radius caused by trauma
tinea versicolor - define
fungal infection of skin caused by malassezia furfur fungus
torticollis - define
abnormal position of head and neck caused by limited movement of cervical spine caused by congenital or acquired muscular, neurological abnormalities
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome - define
group of disorders that affect nerves of brachial plexus and various nerves and blood vessels between base of neck and axilla caused by entrapment or pressure on nerves or blood vessels passing through thoracic outlet
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome - cause
entrapment or pressure on nerves or blood vessels passing through thoracic outlet.
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome - Signs
Edema, heavy arms, weak arms
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome - Risk Factors
genetic predisposition, kyphosis, bad posture, pressure in armpit cause of crutches, whiplash
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome - massage rec
massage chest, shoulder and neck
Transient Ischemic Attack - Define
sudden onset of neurological abnormalities that last for less than 24 hours, usually last less than one hour caused by temporary clogging of blood vessels in brain by small emboli or by spasms of arteries
Stroke - define
sudden reduction of blood supply to areas of brain with signs of brain function disturbance that last more than 24 hours caused by thrombus or embolus that blocks a blood vessel.
Stroke, if left side of the brain is affected, which side are the symptoms?
How to check for stroke?
1. face - ask to smile
2. arm - ask to raise arms
3. speech - ask to repeat
4. call 911
vitiligo - define
skin disorder characterized by smooth, hypopigmented, irregular patches on various parts of body caused by unknown by could be genetic or immuno
warts - define
viral infection of cutaneous or mucosal surfaces, producing fleshy growths caused by human papillomavirus, transmitted via contact with affected individual or sloughed-off infected skin cells
whiplash - define
damage to muscles, ligaments, intervertebral discs and nerve tissues of cervical region by sudden hyperextension and/or flexion of neck
whiplash - signs
pain in anterior and posterior regions of neck
rigidity in cervical muscles
red, warm, skin
difference between lordosis, kyphosis and scoliosis?
lordosis - inward curvature of lumbar
kyphosis - curvature of upper back
scoliosis - S curve of back
De Quervain Tendonitis affects what area?
Poppin in ankle due to due to Ankle Tendonitis is known as?
Ulcerative Colitis is most common in what ages?
Warts resolve in what length of time?
Bursitis is not a serious result from Venous Thrombosis.
True or False
Which sex is more prone to Lupus?
Peptic Ulcers are caused by what?
Acute Synovitis occurs in tandem with all
A mild ankle sprain hurts less than a complete tear.
True or False
Varicose Veins are due to what?
prolonged dilation of vessel walls
Lateral tennis elbow involves an origin of
Extensor Carpi Radialis Brachii
Measles last for how long?
Vitiligo affects which area the most?
Eyes and Mouth
Bacterial Tenosynovitis is most severe in which area
Thumbs and fingers
Strains are most common in which area?
neck and back
the mandible moves how much?
1.4 to 2 inches
Which muscle does not contribute to shin splints?
Shoulder tendonitis can restrict adduction due to an inflamed?