pathology final exam

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pathology final exam
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  1. impetigo
    bacterial infection of epidermis caused by streptococcus pyogenes
  2. impetigo - who gets it?
    children
  3. impetigo - signs and symptoms
    insect bite on face, then pustule discharge with crusts
  4. infections mononucleosis - define
    acute viral infection primarily affecting upper respiratory tract caused by epstein-barr virus and transmitted thru saliva, blood transfusions and bone marrow transplants
  5. infectious mononucleosis - signs and symptoms
    • 1. fatigue, fever, sore throat, enlarged lymph nodes
    • 2. enlarged spleen, liver and jaundice
  6. infection mononucleosis - how long contagious?
    • avoid contact 6-8 weeks for ruptured spleen
    • few weeks to months is contagious
  7. inflammatory bowel disease - types and define
    • 1. Crohn's Disease - chronic inflammatory disease of GI tract, affecting all layers of intestinal wall
    • 2. Ulcerative Colitis - chronic inflammatory tract, affecting superficial mucosal layer of large intestine
  8. crohn's disease - define
    chronic inflammation of GI tract affecting all layers cause is unknown, but may be immune
  9. ulcerative colitis - define
    chronic inflammatory disease of GI tract affecting superficial mucosal layer of Large Intestine
  10. ulcerative colitis - signs and symptoms
    • cycle of remission and exacerbations 
    • diarrhea with blood and mucous in stool, ab pain, fever
    • weight loss, fatigue and arthritis
  11. crohn's disease - signs and symptoms
    • vague, mild pain in right abs
    • fever, nausea, gas, diarrhea, blood in stools
    • chronic diarrhea, weight loss, fatty, foul-smelling stools
  12. influenza - define
    highly contagious respiratory tract infection caused by viral infection of myxovirus influenzae.
  13. influenza - what causes it?
    transmission by inhalation of droplets most of the time and also through sharing food or drink
  14. jaundice - define
    yellow discoloration of skin caused by abnormally high levels of bilirubin pigment in blood
  15. jaundice - cause
    any condition that increases red blood cell breakdown, affecting metabolism in liver or retards excretion in bile
  16. jaundice - signs and symptoms
    yellow discoloration of white area of eyes, mucous membrane of mouth
  17. jaundice - prehepatic
    anemia - liver
  18. jaundice - hepatic
    hepatitis
  19. jaundice - posthepatic
    severe itching, foul smelling clay-colored feces and dark urine, gallbladder
  20. What is the most common type of hepatitis?
    hepatic
  21. kidney stones - define
    formation of solitary or multiple stones caused by calcium salts, uric acid, cystine and magnesium ammonium in absence of substances that normally inhibit precipitation.
  22. kidney stones - signs and symptoms
    • excruciating pain in upper outer quadrant of abs and flanks with referred pain to lower ab, low back leading to nausea. Cold, clammy skin.
    • Small collection of small particles in urine; pink urine from blood.
  23. kidney - how to get rid of?
    fluid intake and dietary alterations
  24. kyphosis - define
    deformity of spine that produces a rounded back caused by bad posture, arthritis, lung problem, ankylosing spondylitis
  25. primary or first degree kyphosis
    deformity of muscular origin
  26. secondary or second degree kyphosis
    connective tissue
  27. tertiary or third degree kyphosis
    from bony changes
  28. leukemia - define
    cancerous overproduction of white blood cells in bone marrow and lymph tissue, resulting in an abnormally large number of immature white blood cells in blood caused by mutations in genetic material of stem cells caused by viruses.
  29. leukemia - signs and symptoms
    • onset of fever - abnormal bleeding from nose or gum with easy bruising
    • mild fever, weight loss, fatigue and bone pain
    • enlarged spleen, liver and lymph nodes
  30. lymphocytic leukemia
    increased lymphocytes
  31. myelobastic leukemia
    increased white blood cells
  32. monocytic leukemia
    monocytes
  33. lice - define
    external infestation of lice - wingless insects that feed on human and animal blood
  34. body lice - signs
    itching, especially on shoulders, back and buttocks, itchy, reddened, raised areas
  35. head lice - signs
    nits, pearl-gray or oval structures, found on hair shaft close to scalp; red raw scalp from scratching
  36. pubic lice - signs
    crabs
  37. How much of liver required to function?
    10%
  38. liver failure - define
    inability of liver to meet the body's needs
  39. liver - function
    detox, production of biochemicals, and protein synthesis
  40. lymphoma - define
    cancer originating in lymph nodes (spleen and pancreas) and the other lymphoid tissues cause is unknown but may be viral
  41. lymphoma - what is the cause?
    unknown but may be viral
  42. lymphoma - signs and symptoms
    • painless swelling of lymph nodes, tonsils, adenoids, liver or spleen, with rubbery feel with pressure on area around nodes
    • - fatigue, weight loss, and fever
  43. lymphoma - who is more at risk?
    epstein-barr virus and low immune disorder
  44. measles - define
    viral infection that produces skin rashes transmitted in air or in droplets from an infected person, enters respiratory tract traveling to blood via lymphatic
  45. molluscum contagiosum - define
    viral disease of skin spread through skin-to-skin contact, fomites or self inoculation
  46. molluscum contagiosum - who gets it?
    immunocompromised people
  47. muscular dystrophy - define
    group of congenital disorders characterized by a progressive wasting skeletal muscles, with no loss of sensation or neural activity caused by inherited lack of adequate muscle proteins.
  48. muscular dystrophy - cause
    lack of adequate muscle proteins, such as dystrophin
  49. duchenne's muscular dystrophy - define
    onset between 3 and 5, muscle weakness and hypertrophy in leg and pelvic region, affecting gait and posture.
  50. landouzy-dejerine muscular dystrophy - define
    weakness of muscles of face, shoulders and upper arms, progressing to all muscles.
  51. muscular dystrophy - risk factors
    genetic and males
  52. myastenia gravis - define
    autoimmune, neuromuscular disorder marked by muscle weakness and muscle fatigue caused by reduced availability of acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junction in muscle cells resulting in decreased efficiency of nerve signal transmission
  53. myasthenia gravis - define
    autoimmune, neuromuscular disorder marked by muscle weakness and muscle fatigue
  54. myasthenia gravis - cause
    caused by reduced availability of acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junction in muscle cells which results in decreased efficiency of nerve signal transmission and therefore impaired muscle function.
  55. myasthenia gravis - who gets it?
    mid to older women and women/men in older age
  56. necrotizing fasciitis - define
    a bacterial infection involving the fasciae surrounding muscles caused by bacterial flor in GI tract or microorganisms in skin.
  57. necrotizing fasciitis - risk
    deep trauma in tissue and abdominal surgery
  58. necrotizing fasciitis - signs and symptoms
    severe pain, skin is reddened with edema and loss of sensation
  59. necrotizing fasciitis - massage recommendations
    contraindicated
  60. nerve entrapment syndrome - define
    condition that results in continuous or intermittent compression of one or more peripheral nerves caused by repetitive movements creating pressure in surrounding areas.
  61. nerve entrapment syndrome - massage therapy rec
    • 1. familiar with distribution of nerves that can be entrapped with the origin, insertion and action of affected muscles,
    • 2. stretch soft tissue along path of nerve in direction perpendicular to nerve and do not put pressure on the nerve. 
    • 3. stimulate weak atrophied muscles and relax overloaded/tight muscles
  62. obesity - define
    excess amount of body fat by 20% or more of the expected weight for person's age, sex and height. caused by intake of calories that exceed expenditure
  63. obesity - what bmi?
    greater than or equal to 30
  64. osteoporosis - define
    decrease in bone mass and bone density, resulting in porous, fragile bones caused by age, endocrine disorders or cancer
  65. osteoporosis - prevent?
    stop smoking, calcium, vitamin D, medication, weight-bearing exercise, reduce alcohol
  66. parkinson's disease - define
    chronic, progressive disorder affecting the motor system caused by deficiency of neurotransmitter dopamine in basal ganglia and overactivity of acetylcholine
  67. parkinson's disease - cause
    deficiency of neurotransmitter dopamine in basal ganglia and overactivity of acetylcholine
  68. parkinson's disease - signs and symptoms
    • TRAP (tremor, rigidity, akinesia, and postural instability)
    • - normal cognitive function with no sensory loss
    • - sudden sensations of heat and increased sweating.
  69. parkinson's disease - risks
    men, age 50 to 60, carbon monoxide poisoning, stroke, tumore in basal ganglia, drugs for schizophrenia and genetic mutations
  70. plantar fasciitis - define
    inflammation of plantar fascia and surrounding structures caused by excessive stress on foot near attachment of fascia to calcaneus bone
  71. plantar fasciitis - signs and symptoms
    • pain in heel, made worse by walking
    • tenderness in fascia
    • muscle pain on plantar fascia
    • redness, swelling in plantar surface of foot
  72. plantar fasciitis - risk
    high arches, age 40 or oler, involvement in sports, long periods of standing or walking, poor footwear, high heels and weight gain
  73. plantar fasciitis - massage therapy rec
    • ice massage, lymph drainage, effleurage and petrissage on lower back and legs.
    • heel that pain with tennis ball
  74. pre-menstrual syndrome - define
    physical, psychological, behavioral symptoms occurring 3-14 days prior to onset of menstruation that interfere with normal activities caused by changes in serotonin in brain brought by fluctuations in estrogen and progestrogene levels during menstruation.
  75. premenstrual syndrome - causes
    changes in level of serotonin in brain, brought about by normal fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone levels during menstrual cycle
  76. premenstrual syndrome - relief?
    • diet, sleep and exercise
    • relax, FBM
    • essential oils lavender, chamomile, rose
    • warm compress
  77. psoriasis - define
    chronic, relapsing, inflammation disease of skin caused by unknown by may be related to keratinocyte migration rate and immune system
  78. psoriasis - signs and symptoms
    sharply demarcated patches of skin with white or yellow scales that loosely adhere to epidermis, red around patches, lifelong with cycles of remission
  79. psoriasis - risk factors
    age 30 or older, genetic predisposition, skin trauma, alcohol consumption, stress
  80. psoriasis - massage rec
    aware of increased risk for infection and essential oils
  81. ringworm - define
    fungal infection of skin caused by a fungus that thrives on cool areas, transmitted by contact with infected person or clothing, animal or soil
  82. ringworm - risk factors
    lowered immunity, children, pets, damp feet, shoes, public showers or pools
  83. ringworm - treatment
    topical agent 2-4 weeks
  84. raynaud's syndrome - define
    intense spasm of the arteries and arterioles in fingers and toes seen by swelling in fingers and toes
  85. scabies - define
    itchy skin infection caused by parasitic mites caused by sarcoptes scabiei that burrows into epidermis
  86. scabies - risks
    crowded living conditions, sharing clothes, bedding, towels
  87. sciatica - define
    painful condition resulting from pressure or injury to sciatic nerve caused by prolapse of vertebral disc and resulting pressure on nerve roots of sciatic nerve, narrowing of intervertebral canal
  88. sciatica - nerve root
    L4, L5, S1, S2, S3
  89. sciatica - massage rec
    avoid pressure, stimulation in area of sensory deficit and passive movement of joints without force.
  90. sciatica - techniques
    • 1. double-thumb at release of piriformis
    • 2. double thumb at greater sciatic notch
    • 3. supported thum to obturator internus
    • 4. release from ischial tuberosity and great trochantor
  91. scleroderma - define
    progressive, widespread disease of connective tissue, cause unknown but most likely autoimmune
  92. scleroderma - who gets it
    young, middle aged women, african americans with genetic predisposition, exposure to silica dust, drugs, organic solvents and viral infections
  93. scoliosis - define
    lateral curvature of spine caused by unknown, associated with deformed vertebrae, muscular dystrophy, marfan's syndrome, cerebral palsy
  94. Seasonal Affective Disorder - define
    mood disorder characterized by symptoms of depression during winter caused by dysfunction in biological rhythms and changes in melatonin secretions from pineal gland and certain neurotransmitters (seratonin)
  95. Seasonal Affective Disorder - massage rec
    relaxation and exposure to light during day
  96. shin spint - define
    inflammation of periosteum, outermost connective tissue layer of bone, in medial side of lower leg caused by excessive use of posterior tibialis, soleus, flexor, hallucis longis, or flexor digitorum longus
  97. spina bifida - define
    congenital spinal defect in fusion of right and left half of one or more vertebrae, sometimes involving protrusion of spinal cord and meninges through gap caused by virus, radiation or toxic environment during pregnancy
  98. spina bifida - cause
    viral infection, radiation, toxic environment during first trimester of pregnancy when spinal cord and vertebrae develop
  99. spina bifida - massage rec
    avoid massage in lumbosacral area, passive movement, ROM, transverse friction around joint.
  100. spinal cord injury - define
    complete or partial damage to spinal cord at any level, resulting in loss of sensation, motor function and autonomic function caused by trauma and tumors
  101. level C4 - define
    tetraplegic, above head spared
  102. level C5 - define
    deltoid and biceps function, support of wrists and fingers required
  103. level C6 - define
    shoulder muscles, elbow flexion and wrist extension are normal
  104. Level C7 - define
    triceps and finger flexors and extensors
  105. level T1-T5 - define
    normal upper body
  106. Level T6-T11 - Define
    upper intercostal and back musculature control is normal
  107. Level T12 - L3 - define
    Ab and back control normal
  108. Level L4 - Define
    use of hip flexors and knee extensors
  109. When is massage appropriate for Spinal Shock?
    After the acute stage
  110. Sprain - Define
    stretching or tearing of ligaments, usually without displacement of or instability to joint caused by sudden sharp twist to join that stretches ligament and ruptures some fibers
  111. Grade I Sprain - Define
    stretch and minimal tear of ligament
  112. Grade II Sprain - Define
    partial tear of ligament, swelling, tenderness, difficulty bearing weight, mild hypermobility
  113. Grade III Sprain - Define
    Complete tear of ligament; extensive bleeding, swelling, instability, disability, marked hypermobility
  114. Most common way to Sprain?
    ankle sprain on lateral border of foot that has been plantar flexed.
  115. Ankle Sprain - Massage Rec
    ROM, MET
  116. Knee Sprain - Define
    partial or complete tear of one or more ligaments of knee joint to the MCL or the ACL
  117. Strain - Define
    excessive stretching or tearing of a muscle caused by acute or chronic mechanical overloading
  118. Stroke - Define
    sudden reduction of blood supply to areas of brain with signs of brain function disturbance that lasts more than 24 hours caused by thrombus or embolus blocked blood vessel
  119. Acute Synovitis - Define
    acute inflammation of synovial membrane lining of joint capsule caused by injury to joint.
  120. Acute Synovitis - Massage Rec
    Cold Pack, Squeeze and effleurage, vigorous massage without moving joint
  121. TMJ - Define
    Temporormandibular Joint Syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms associated with joint connecting lower jawbone and temporal bone of skulls caused by misalignment or laxity of ligaments and muscles.
  122. Ankle Tendinitis - Define
    inflammation of Calcaneal (achilles) tendon caused by overuse of gastrocs and soleus muscles
  123. Who is likely to get calcaneal tendinitis?
    high-impact sports
  124. Elbow Tendinitis - aka
    tennis elbow, golfer's elbow, epitrochlear tendinitis
  125. Knee Tendinitis - aka
    patellar tendinitis, jumper's knee, popliteal tendinitis
  126. Best way to work with ankle tendinitis?
    deep transverse friction massage and proximal areas
  127. Pes Anserine Tendonitis - Muscles
    • SGT FOT
    • sartorius
    • Gracilis
    • semitendonosis
    • femoral nerve
    • obturator nerve
    • tibial nerve
  128. popliteal tendinitis - define
    inflammation of popliteal or semimembranous tendon of knee caused by repetitive knee flexion
  129. popliteal tendinitis - who gets it?
    long distance runners
  130. popliteal tendinitis - massage rec
    ice, passive ROM and friction massage
  131. shoulder tendinitis - define
    inflammation of supraspinatus or infraspinatus tendon at muscle-tendon attachment to humerus caused by acute trauma at shoulder, rheumatic diseases or postural misalignment
  132. Who gets shoulder tendinitis?
    tennis, swimming, baseball, raquetball
  133. Shoulder tendinitis - massage rec
    ice and deep moist heat with transverse friction in chronic stage
  134. Tenosynovitis - define
    inflammation of synovial sheath surrounding a tendon caused by overworking a muscle, stretching or wrenching a tendon, or bacterial
  135. What are the two types of tenosynovitis and how do you get them?1
    • 1. bacterial - bacteria enters into synovial sheath
    • 2. De Quervain - inflammation of synovial lining common sheath of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis as tendons pass over distal end of radius caused by trauma
  136. tinea versicolor - define
    fungal infection of skin caused by malassezia furfur fungus
  137. torticollis - define
    abnormal position of head and neck caused by limited movement of cervical spine caused by congenital or acquired muscular, neurological abnormalities
  138. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome - define
    group of disorders that affect nerves of brachial plexus and various nerves and blood vessels between base of neck and axilla caused by entrapment or pressure on nerves or blood vessels passing through thoracic outlet
  139. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome - cause
    entrapment or pressure on nerves or blood vessels passing through thoracic outlet.
  140. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome - Signs
    • Edema, heavy arms, weak arms
    • weak pulse
  141. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome - Risk Factors
    genetic predisposition, kyphosis, bad posture, pressure in armpit cause of crutches, whiplash
  142. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome - massage rec
    • massage chest, shoulder and neck
    • passive ROM
    • lymph massage
    • moist heat
  143. Transient Ischemic Attack - Define
    sudden onset of neurological abnormalities that last for less than 24 hours, usually last less than one hour caused by temporary clogging of blood vessels in brain by small emboli or by spasms of arteries
  144. Stroke - define
    sudden reduction of blood supply to areas of brain with signs of brain function disturbance that last more than 24 hours caused by thrombus or embolus that blocks a blood vessel.
  145. Stroke, if left side of the brain is affected, which side are the symptoms?
    right
  146. How to check for stroke?
    • 1. face - ask to smile
    • 2. arm - ask to raise arms
    • 3. speech - ask to repeat
    • 4. call 911
  147. vitiligo - define
    skin disorder characterized by smooth, hypopigmented, irregular patches on various parts of body caused by unknown by could be genetic or immuno
  148. warts - define
    viral infection of cutaneous or mucosal surfaces, producing fleshy growths caused by human papillomavirus, transmitted via contact with affected individual or sloughed-off infected skin cells
  149. whiplash - define
    damage to muscles, ligaments, intervertebral discs and nerve tissues of cervical region by sudden hyperextension and/or flexion of neck
  150. whiplash - signs
    • pain in anterior and posterior regions of neck
    • rigidity in cervical muscles
    • red, warm, skin
  151. difference between lordosis, kyphosis and scoliosis?
    • lordosis - inward curvature of lumbar
    • kyphosis - curvature of upper back
    • scoliosis - S curve of back
  152. De Quervain Tendonitis affects what area?
    thumb
  153. Poppin in ankle due to due to Ankle Tendonitis is known as?
    crepitus
  154. Ulcerative Colitis is most common in what ages?
    15-30
  155. Warts resolve in what length of time?
    2 Years
  156. Bursitis is not a serious result from Venous Thrombosis.
    True or False
    True
  157. Which sex is more prone to Lupus?
  158. Peptic Ulcers are caused by what?
    Heliocobacter Pylori
  159. Acute Synovitis occurs in tandem with all
    arthritis
  160. A mild ankle sprain hurts less than a complete tear. 
    True or False
    False
  161. Varicose Veins are due to what?
    prolonged dilation of vessel walls
  162. Lateral tennis elbow involves an origin of
    Extensor Carpi Radialis Brachii
  163. Measles last for how long?
    ten days
  164. Vitiligo affects which area the most?
    Eyes and Mouth
  165. Bacterial Tenosynovitis is most severe in which area
    Thumbs and fingers
  166. Strains are most common in which area?
    neck and back
  167. the mandible moves how much?
    1.4 to 2 inches
  168. Which muscle does not contribute to shin splints?
    Gastrocs
  169. Shoulder tendonitis can restrict adduction due to an inflamed?
    acromion process
  170. Peripheral Neuritis is paralysis of what area?
    hands and feet
  171. What is the goal of massaging tenosynovitis?
    smooth roughened walls of sheath and tendons
  172. Plantar Fascitis causes symptoms in which area?
    heel pain

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