Phonatory Recap

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Author:
jacwill
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221042
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Phonatory Recap
Updated:
2013-06-03 23:50:51
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CSD 401 SPRUILL
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CSU DH Anatomy and physiology of larynx
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  1. describe the larynx and include where it sits in the resp tract
    The larynx is a cartilaginous tube that connects inferiorly to the respiratory system (the trachea & lungs), and superiorly to the vocal tract and oral cavity
  2. what are the 3 subsystems
    • the pulmonary power supply
    • the laryngeal valve
    • supraglottic vocal tract resonator
  3. what is the larynx regarded as?
    the intrinsic component of the resp system which functions as a protective device for the lower resp tract
  4. what does the larynx do?
    1)Prevents air from escaping the lungs 

    2)Prevents foreign substances from entering the larynx

    3)Forcefully expels foreign substances which threaten to enter either the larynx or the trachea
  5. what accompanies active closure
    throacic fixation active closure facilitates the activities which demand highly elevated abdominal pressures (forced bowel movement and bladder and heavy lifting)
  6. what three part system does the larynx rely on?
    • the integration of:
    • 1. the lungs
    • 2. the vocal folds
    • 3. the vocal tract
  7. communicative function of the larynx
    the lungs
    • serve as the power supply by providing aerodynamic subglottal tracheal pressure
    •   -blows the vfs apart
    •   -sets vfs into vibration
  8. communicative function of the larynx
    the vocal folds
    within the larynx provide the sounds source for phonation and they oscillate in a series of compressions and rarefactions, modulating the subglottal pressure and transglottal flow as short pulses of sound energy
  9. communicative function of the larynx
    the vocal tract
    serves as the resonating cavity, which shapes and filters the acoustic energy to produce the sound we recognize as human voice
  10. the laryngeal valve
    what complex arrangement does the larynx consist of?
    • 1. muscles
    • 2. mucous membranes
    • 3. other connective tissue
  11. what do the muscles and cartilages of the larynx create?
    3 levels of folds which serve as the sphincters providing both communicative and vegetative functions of the body
  12. what sort of closures does the larynx promote?
    closure is multidimensional and closes horizontally (lateral to medial) and vertical (vertical compression)
  13. what is the upper rim of the larynx formed by?
    the aryepiglottic folds, which is a strong fibrous membrane that connects the lateral walls of the epiglottis to the arytenoid cartilage complex
  14. what happens when the epiglottis cartilage folds over the laryngeal vestibule
    it folds posteriorly and inferiorly it separates the pharynx from the larynx and offer the first line of defense for preserving the airwary
  15. what does the 2nd sphincter of the larynx consist of?
    • formed by the ventricular folds, which are not normally active during phonation but may become hyperfunctional during effortful speech production or extreme vegetative closure
    •    -they are directly superior to the ventricle and the true vfs...forma a double layer of medial closure, if needed
  16. what is the principle function of the ventricular sphincter?
    to increase intrathoracic pressure by blocking the outflow of air from the lungs
  17. when do the folds tightly compress?
    during rapid contraction of the thoracic muscles (coughing, sneezing) or for longer durations when building up subglottic pressure to stablize the thorax during certain physical tasks (lifiting, emesis, childbirth, or defecation)
  18. what are the third layer of the folding mechanism?
    • the true vocal folds
    • provide vibrating source for phonation for speech communication
    • mechanically the larynx and vfs function as a variable valve modulating airflow as it passes through the vibrating vfs during phonation closing off trachea and lungs from foods and liquids during swallowing actions and providing resistance to increased abdominal pressure during effortful activities
  19. vocal fold vibration
    the sound source that provides the speech signal
  20. what is phonation dependent on?
    the resp power that the lungs and the abdominal and throacic musculature provide
  21. what happens during inhalation?
    • the diaphragm contracts (flattens)
    • compresses the viscera
    • simultaneously pulls the lungs downward
    • as lung volume expands, air is drawn passively into lungs
  22. what happens during exhalation?
    • the diaphragm relaxes and rises back up to its resting position
    • passive elastic recoil pushes air out of the lungs and through the vfs and vocal tract
    • vfs are abducted in the paramedian position during quiet exhalation (no sound generated)
  23. what happens when you exhale for speech?
    • the vfs adduct at midline, constricting the airflow stream as it exits the lungs aerodynamic energy sets the folds into oscillation, creating phonation
    • without airflow, no sustained phonatory sound source can be achieved
  24. what effects the overall pitch, loudness and quality of phonation?
    interactive relationship btw the subglottal air pressure buildup and transglottal airflow rate passing through the vibrating vf valves
  25. vocal tract resonance
    the excitation of air molecules when sound waves generated by the vfs travel through the supraglottic air column into the pharynx, oral and nasal cavities, and across articulatory structures such as the velum, hard palate, tongue and teeth
  26. fant's acoustic theory of speech production
    • acoustic energy (phonation) traveling through filter (vocal tract) modified in variable shape, size and constriction characteristics (artic gestures) is the basis
    • theory underlies the understanding of the three components of speech:
    • 1. glottal sound source
    • 2. vocal tract filtering
    • 3. resonating characteristics
  27. what has a direct influence on the quality and strength of the acoustic product
    The shape & size of the vocal tract & its constrictions have a direct influence on the quality & strength of the acoustic product radiated from the lips and perceived by listeners.
  28. flat atonal buzz
    The sound of vf vibration w/out the supraglottic resonating cavity (i.e. intraoperative conditions or excised larynx studies) reveals a flat, atonal buzz, devoid of any “ring” and completely unrecognizable as human voice
  29. what are the three unpaired cartilages of the larynx?
    • epiglottis
    • thyroid
    • cricoid
  30. what are the three paired cartilages of the larynx?
    • arytenoids
    • corniculates
    • cuneiforms
  31. extrinsic and intrinsic laryngeal muscles
    • extrinsic=attach to a site on the larynx and to an external point
    •     -primary function is to lift larynx
    •     -also alter the shape and filtering characteristic of the supraglottic vocal tract, modifying vocal pitch, loudness and quality

    • intrinsic=both end attached within the laryngeal cartilages
    •     -primary function is to alter the shape and configuration of the glottis, by modifying the position and tension, and edge of the vfs
    •     -two critical effects:
    •        1.change the position of the cartilage framework that houses vfs
    •        2. altering the shape and configuration of the glottis
  32. intrinsic muscle manipulations consist of:
    • adduction
    • abduction
    • modifications in vf
    •   1. length
    •   2. tension
    •   3. thickness
  33. Both (intrinsic & extrinsic) groups are necessary to accomplish the vital & complex movements for:
    1)Ventilation 

    2)Airway protection

    3)Communication

    4)Integral to maintaining a functioning laryngeal valve
  34. what are the two extrinsic laryngeal muscle groups?
    • suprahyoid=above hyoid
    • infrahyoid=below hyoid
  35. suprahyoids
    raise the larynx by pulling the hyoid bone forward or backward and upward

    • include:
    •   -stylohyoid
    •   -mylohyoid
    •   -digastric (anterior and posterior bellies)
    •   -geniohyoid
  36. infrahyoids
    pull the hyoid boins and the larynx to a lower position in the neck

    • include:
    •   -thyrohyoid
    •   -omohyoid
    •   -sternohyoid
    •   -sternothyroid

    sternocleidomastoid forms broad sheath in the neck extending from sternum to the mastoid
  37. all intrinsic muscles are paired, except...

    all intrinsic muscles serve as adductors except...

    All of the muscles are innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve except...
    the transverse interarytenoid which functions as single unit

    the posterior cricoarytenoid, the sold abductor

    the cricothyroid muscle which is innervated by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve
  38. what are the 5 histologic layers of the vf microstructure?
    • epithelium
    • superficial
    • intermediate
    • lamina propria (deep)
    • vocalis muscle (deep)

    lamina propria
  39. attack
    process of bringing the vfs together to begin phonation, requires muscular action
  40. simultaneous vocal attack
    coordinate adduction and onset of respiration so that they occur simultaneously
  41. breathy vocal attack
    starting airflow before adducting the vfs
  42. glottal attack
    adduction of the vfs occurs prior to the airflow, like a cough
  43. termination
    abduction of the vfs pull the vfs out to the airstram to reduce the tubulence using muscular action
  44. sustained phonation and s/z phonation
    • the purpose of adduction and abduction for speech
    • measurement of sustained phonation
  45. vocal register
    mode of vibration
    refers to the pattern of activity that the vocal folds undergo during a cycle of vibration
  46. vocal register
    cycle
    moving form one point in the vibratory pattern to the same point again
  47. vocal register
    register
    • refers to the differences in the mode of vibration of vocal folds
    • 1. modal-first register, refers to the pattern of phonation used in daily conversation
  48. vocal register
    glottal fry
    second register, crackly popcorn quality, extremely low  in pitch and sounds rough
  49. vocal register
    falsetto
    third and highest register, vf lengthen and become extremely thin and reedlike
  50. vocal register
    pressed and breathy phonation
    • variation of modal phonation, medial compression is greatly increased
    • breathy=vfs inadequately approximate
  51. vocal register
    whispering
    not really a phonatory mode, no vibration in the vfs
  52. frequency, pitch and pitch change
    pitch
    psychological correlate of frequency
  53. frequency, pitch and pitch change
    optimal pitch
    refers to the pitch of vf vibration that is most appropriate for an individual
  54. frequency, pitch and pitch change
    habitual pitch
    refers to the frequency of vibration of the vfs that is habitually used during speech
  55. frequency, pitch and pitch change
    average fundamental frequency
    reflects the frequency of vibration of sustained phonation
  56. frequency, pitch and pitch change
    pitch range
    the range of fundamental frequency for an individual and is calculated as the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies
  57. frequency, pitch and pitch change
    pitch-changing mechanism
    fundamental frequency increase comes from stretching and tensing the vfs
  58. intensity and intensity change
    loudness
    • pyschological correlate of intensity
    • increase subglottal pressure to increase vocal intensity
  59. linguistic aspects of pitch and intensity
    suprasegmental elements
    parameters of speech above the segment (phonetic) level (prosody-system of stress used to vary meaning; pitch, intonation-changes in pitch during speech; stress-syllable or word emphasis relative to an entire utterance)

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