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What is the thorax composed of?
12 pairs of ribs and costal cartilage, 12 thoracic vertebrare and their IVDs
What are the functions of the thorax?
- -protect the thoracic and abdominal viscera
- -attachment and support of the upper limbs
-provide attatchment for muscles
and ligaments of the upper limbs
, the abdomen
contents of the thoracic cavity ; heart, aorta, lungs, trachea
About the manubrium..
- most superior part of the sternum
- 1st rib costal cartilage and clavical attach there
- @ superior aspect is Suprasternal notch (Jugular notch)
- @ superior-lateral aspect is the clavicular notch
Manubriosternal Joint / Sternal Angle
the articulation between the manubrium and the body of the sternum
2nd rib costal cartilage attatches here
found between the manubrium and the xiphoid process.
costal cartilage of ribs 3-6 attach there
articulation of the body of the sternum and the xiphoid process.
7th rib costal cartilage attaches here
most inferior part of the sternum, no costal cartilage articulates here
Components of Typical Ribs 3-9
- smooth facet of the tuberacle (articulation with the same # TVP of the thoracic vertebrae)
- -superior articular facet (of rib head)
- -crest of the head
- -inferior articular facet (of rib head)
- - head/neck/tubercle of the rib
Rough area of the tubercle for attachment
of the lateral costotransverse
external surface/ internal surface
What are the atypical Ribs?
1st , 2nd , 10th, 11th, 12th
Atypical Rib 1 characteristics?
- - very short
- -only 1 articular facet of the head
- -has no angle
- on the superior surface 4 structures are found; (posterior to anterior)
- -attachment for middle scalene muscle
- - groove for subclavian artery
- -attchment for anterior scalene muscle
- -groove for subclavian vein
Atypical Rib 2 characteristics
- longer but shorter then rib 1
- the head has a superior and inferior articular facets (articulate with t1 / t2)
-the superior surface has two roughened areas created for the attachment for serratus anterior and posterior scalene
Atypical rib 10 characteristics
-only has one articular facet on the head of the rib
Atypical Ribs 11/12 characteristics
- - shorter
- -have no neck and tubercle (therefore there is no articulation with the T11 and T12 TVPS)
- - aka floating ribs
Classify Ribs by attachment to the sternum;
True ribs - 1-7
False ribs 8-10
Floating/Free ribs 11/12
Superior Thoracic Aperature (aka thoracic inlet)
-allows structures to enter and exit the superior aspect of the thoracic cavity ( ex , subclavian artery, trachea)
- boundaries -
- posterior portion is the body of t1
- lateral portion is the 1st rib and costal cartilage
- anterior portion is the manubrium/sternum
Inferior Thoracic Aperature (thoracic outlet)
Allows structures to enter and exit the inferior aspect of the thoracic cavity
(ex inferior vena cava, abdominal aorta)
-Signifcantly covered by the thoracic diaphragm)
- anterior limit of the body of t12, ribs 11 and 12, costal cartilages of ribs 7-10 and the xiphisternal joint
Respiration in the Thorax
The ribs and their costal cartilage provide the thoracic cavity with its flexibility.
this flexibilty is necessary for respiration to occur adequately.
our thorax moves superolaterally.
it returns inferomedially
to its resting position.
- the principle muscle of inspiration is the thoracic diaphragm
Joint of the posterior thoracic cage
- Costovertebral joint
articulation between the superior rib head
and the inferior costal demi facet
of the vertebral body above
, the inferior rib head facet
and the superior costal demi-facet of the body
with the same number vertebrae (the crest of the rib head articulates with the IVD)
- type - plane synovial (uniaxial)
- movements - slide glide
- radiate ligament of the rib head
- - intrinsic , radiates from the neck of the rib to the lateral aspect of the vertebral bodies and IVD.
- supports the superior, anterior and lateral aspects of the joint. (does not support the posterior aspect of the joint)
- Intra-articular ligaments
- attaches the crest of the rib head to the IVD (found inside the joint)
Ligaments of the Costovertebral Joints?
Radiate ligament of the rib head
Joints of the posterior Thoracic Cage
the articulation between the articular facet on the TVP of the same number
of thoracic vertebrae with the facet on the tubercle of the
- type - plane synovial
- movement slide glide
- intrinsic, runs from the rib to the anterior aspect of the TVP.
Lateral Costotransverse ligament
- intrinsic runs from the tuberacle of the rib to the tip of the TVP.
Superior Costotransverse ligament
- extrinsic , runs from the neck of the rib to the tvp of the vertebrae above.
all these ligaments reinforce the connection between rib and TVP
Ligaments of Costotransverse joints
Lateral costotransverse ligament
Superior costotransverse ligament
Joint of the anterior thoracic cage
articulation between the bony part of the rib (facet on the medial aspect of the anterior limit of the rib) and the costal cartilage (the lateral aspect of the costal cartilage)
- type - synchondrosis (primary cartilag.)
- exception does not ossifymovement - none (increases flexibilty of thorax
Ligaments of costochondral joints
Joints of the Anterior Thoracic cage
between the costal cartilages
of ribs 6-10 ( 6 and 7, 7 and 8, 8 and 9, 9 and 10) the connection of cartilage creates
the subcostal border.
- plane synovial (uniaxial)
- exception - articulation between 9/10 costal cartilage is a fibrous joint (so the last joint forms a more stable conection)
movement - slide glide
interchondral ligaments - intrinsic, runs between adjacent costal cartilages of ribs 6-10
Ligaments of Interchondral joints
interchondral ligaments (intrinsic)
Joints of the Anterior Thoracic Cage
articulation between the sternum and costal cartilages of ribs 1-7
- type - 1st sternocostal joint is a synchodrosis(primary cartilaginous joint)
- 2nd-7th joints are plane synovial (uniaxial)
- movement - 1st sternocostal joint =none
- 2nd - slide/glide -diarthrodial
- anterior and posterior radiate sternocostal ligaments
- AS - manubrium and body of sternum
- type - symphysis
- movements - increase flex. of thorax
- AS - body of sternum and xiphoid process
- momements - none
- ligaments - none