RA Week 4

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Author:
daaronryan
ID:
221070
Filename:
RA Week 4
Updated:
2013-05-27 21:10:38
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RA Thorax
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Description:
The Thorax
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  1. What is the thorax composed of?
    12 pairs of ribs and costal cartilage, 12 thoracic vertebrare and their IVDs
  2. What are the functions of the thorax?
    • -protect the thoracic and abdominal viscera
    • -attachment and support of the upper limbs

    -provide attatchment for muscles and ligaments of the upper limbs , the abdomen, back, neck and respiration.

    contents of the thoracic cavity ; heart, aorta, lungs, trachea
  3. About the manubrium..
    • most superior part of the sternum
    • 1st rib costal cartilage and clavical attach there
    • @ superior aspect is Suprasternal notch (Jugular notch)
    • @ superior-lateral aspect is the clavicular notch
  4. Manubriosternal Joint / Sternal Angle
    the articulation between the manubrium and the body of the sternum

    2nd rib costal cartilage attatches here
  5. Sternum Body
    found between the manubrium and the xiphoid process.

    costal cartilage of ribs 3-6 attach there
  6. Xiphisternal Joint
    articulation of the body of the sternum and the xiphoid process.

    7th rib costal cartilage attaches here
  7. Xiphoid
    most inferior part of the sternum, no costal cartilage articulates here
  8. Components of Typical Ribs 3-9
    • -superior articular facet (of rib head)
    • -crest of the head
    • -inferior articular facet (of rib head)
    • - head/neck/tubercle of the rib

    - smooth facet of the tuberacle (articulation with the same # TVP of the thoracic vertebrae)

    Rough area of the tubercle for attachment  of the lateral costotransverse ligament

    external surface/ internal surface
  9. What are the atypical Ribs?
    1st , 2nd , 10th, 11th, 12th
  10. Atypical Rib 1 characteristics?
    •  - very short
    • -only 1 articular facet of the head
    • -has no angle

    • on the superior surface 4 structures are found; (posterior to anterior)
    • -attachment for middle scalene muscle
    • - groove for subclavian artery
    • -attchment for anterior scalene muscle
    • -groove for subclavian vein
  11. Atypical Rib 2 characteristics
    - longer but shorter then rib 1

    - the head has a superior and inferior articular facets  (articulate with t1 / t2)

    -the superior surface has two roughened areas created for the attachment for serratus anterior and posterior scalene
  12. Atypical rib 10 characteristics
     -only has one articular facet on the head of the rib
  13. Atypical Ribs 11/12 characteristics
    • - shorter
    • -have no neck and tubercle (therefore there is no articulation with the T11 and T12 TVPS)
    •  - aka floating ribs
  14. Classify Ribs by attachment to the sternum;
    True ribs - 1-7

    False ribs 8-10

    Floating/Free ribs 11/12
  15. Superior Thoracic Aperature (aka thoracic inlet)
    -allows structures to enter and exit the superior aspect of the thoracic cavity ( ex , subclavian artery, trachea)

    • boundaries -
    • posterior portion is the body of t1
    • lateral portion is the 1st rib and costal cartilage
    • anterior portion is the manubrium/sternum
  16. Inferior Thoracic Aperature (thoracic outlet)
    Allows structures to enter and exit the inferior aspect of the thoracic cavity (ex inferior vena cava, abdominal aorta)

    -Signifcantly covered by the thoracic diaphragm)

    • Boundaries
    • anterior limit of the body of t12, ribs 11 and 12, costal cartilages of ribs 7-10 and the xiphisternal joint
  17. Respiration in the Thorax
    The ribs and their costal cartilage provide the thoracic cavity with its flexibility.

    this flexibilty is necessary for respiration to occur adequately.

    With insperation our thorax moves superolaterally.

    during expiration it returns inferomedially to its resting position.

    • the principle muscle of inspiration is the thoracic diaphragm
  18. Joint of the posterior thoracic cage

    - Costovertebral joint
     articulation between the superior rib head and the inferior costal demi facet  of the vertebral body above, the inferior rib head facet and the superior costal demi-facet of the body with the same number vertebrae (the crest of the rib head articulates with the IVD)

    • type - plane synovial (uniaxial)
    • movements - slide glide

    Ligaments - 

    • radiate ligament of the rib head
    • - intrinsic , radiates from the neck of the rib to the lateral aspect of the vertebral bodies and IVD.
    • supports the superior, anterior and lateral aspects of the joint.  (does not support the posterior aspect of the joint)

    • Intra-articular ligaments
    • attaches the crest of the rib head to the IVD (found inside the joint)
  19. Ligaments of the Costovertebral Joints?
    Radiate ligament of the rib head

    intra-articular ligaments
  20. Joints of the posterior Thoracic Cage
    Costotransverse joints
    the articulation between the articular facet on the TVP of the same number of thoracic vertebrae with the facet on the tubercle of the rib.

    • type - plane synovial
    • movement slide glide

    Ligaments

    Costotransverse ligament - intrinsic, runs from the rib to the anterior aspect of the TVP.

    Lateral Costotransverse ligament - intrinsic runs from the tuberacle of the rib to the tip of the TVP.

    Superior Costotransverse ligament - extrinsic , runs from the neck of the rib to the tvp of the vertebrae above.

    all these ligaments reinforce the connection between rib and TVP
  21. Ligaments of Costotransverse joints
    costotransverse ligament

    Lateral costotransverse ligament

    Superior costotransverse ligament
  22. Joint of the anterior thoracic cage

    Costochondral joints
    articulation between the bony part of the rib (facet on the medial aspect of the anterior limit of the rib) and the costal cartilage (the lateral aspect of the costal cartilage)

    • type - synchondrosis (primary cartilag.)
    • exception does not ossify
    • movement - none (increases flexibilty of thorax

    no ligaments
  23. Ligaments of costochondral joints
    none
  24. Joints of the Anterior Thoracic cage

    Interchondral joints
    articulation between the costal cartilages of ribs 6-10 ( 6 and 7, 7 and 8, 8 and 9, 9 and 10) the connection of cartilage creates the subcostal border.

    • type - plane synovial (uniaxial)
    • exception - articulation between 9/10 costal cartilage is a fibrous joint (so the last joint forms a more stable conection)

    movement - slide glide

    ligaments

    interchondral ligaments - intrinsic, runs between adjacent costal cartilages of ribs 6-10


  25. Ligaments of Interchondral joints
    interchondral ligaments (intrinsic)
  26. Joints of the Anterior Thoracic Cage

    Sternocostal joints
    articulation between the sternum and costal cartilages of ribs 1-7

    • type - 1st sternocostal joint is a synchodrosis(primary cartilaginous joint)
    • 2nd-7th joints are plane synovial (uniaxial)

    • movement - 1st sternocostal joint =none
    •                   2nd - slide/glide -diarthrodial

    ligaments - anterior and posterior radiate sternocostal ligaments
  27. Manubriosternal joint
    • AS - manubrium and body of sternum
    • type - symphysis
    • movements - increase flex. of thorax

    ligaments - none
  28. xiphisternal joint
    • AS - body of sternum and xiphoid process
    • momements - none
    • ligaments - none

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