GCSE Geography

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GCSE Geography
2013-05-25 14:47:53

revisionn :)
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  1. humans use fold mountain areas for farming
    higher mountain slopes aren't great for growing crops so they are used to graze animals e.g. mountain goats . lower slopes are used to grow crops . steep slopes are sometimes terraced to make growing crops easier
  2. steep sided mountains and high lakes to store water make fold mountains ideal for
    generating hydro-electric power
  3. fol mountains are a major source of .... .... , so there's a lot of mining going on . the steep slopes make access to the mines difficult , so .....-..... .... have been carved out on the sides of some mountains to get them
    • metal ores 
    • zig-zag roads
  4. fold mountain ranges are a good environment top grow
    some types of tree such as conifers . They're grown on the steep valley slopes and are used for things like fuel , building materials , and to make paper and furniture
  5. fold mountains have spectacular scenery , which
    attracts tourists . In winter people visit to do sports like skiing , snowboarding and ice climbing . in summer , walkers come to enjoy the scenery
  6. where are the Alps
    central Europe - it stretches across Austria , France , Germany , Italy , Lichtenstein , Slovenia and Switzerland
  7. The Alps were formed about
    30 million years ago by the collision between the African and European plates
  8. the population of the Alps is about
    12 million people
  9. people use the Alps for
    • farming 
    • HEP 
    • mining 
    • tourism 
    • forestry
  10. how is the Alps farmed
    • 1) the steep upland areas are used to farm goats , which provide milk , cheese and meat 
    • 2) some sunnier slopes have been terraced to plant vineyards for example there is a vineyard in Lavaux in Switzerland
  11. tourism in the Alps
    • 100 million tourists visit the Alps each year making tourists a huge part of the economy 
    • 70% of tourists visit the steep , snow covered mountains in the winter for skiing , snowboarding and ice climbing . in the summer tourists visit for walking , mountain biking , paragliding and climbing 
    • new villages have been built to cater for the quantity of tourists , e.g. Tignes in France
    • ski runs , ski lifts , cable cars , holiday chalets and restaurants pepper the landscape
  12. HEP in the Alps
    • the narrow valleys are dammed to generate HEP e.g. in the Berne area in Switzerland . Switzerland gets 60% of its electricity from HEP stations in the Alps
    • the electricity produced is used locally to power homes and businesses . It's also exported to towns and cities further away
  13. mining in the Alps
    salt , iron ore , gold , silver and copper were mined in the Alps , but mining has declined dramatically due to cheaper foreign sources
  14. forestry in the Alps
    Scots Pine is planted all over the Alps because it's more resilient to the munching goats , which kill native saplings . The trees are logged and sold to make things like furniture
  15. people have adapted to the conditions in the Alps
    • steep relief : goats are farmed because they are well adapted to live on steep mountains . Trees and man made defences are used to protect against avalanches and rock slides
    • poor soils : animals are grazed in most high areas as the soil isn't great for growing crops 
    • limited communications : Roads have been built over passes (lower points between mountains) e.g. the Brenner pass between Austria and Italy . It takes a long time to drive over passes and they can be blocked by snow , so tunnels have been cut through the mountains to provide fast transport links . For example , the Lotschberg Base Tunnel has been cut through the Bernese Alps in Switzerland
  16. draw a diagram of an earthquake
  17. key features of an earthquake
    • focus 
    • epicentre 
    • fault/fault-line
    • seismic waves/shock waves
    • decreasing shaking/intensity on the Earth's surface with increasing distance from the epicentre
    • if the quake occurs under an ocean then a tsunami may be triggered as a secondary effect
  18. the word seismicity means
    everything to do with earthquakes it derives from the term seismic waves
  19. seismic waves are
    waves of energy emitted from the focus . they are vibrations that travel outward from the fault at speeds of several miles per second from where the stress is released . they radiate outwards from the focus rather like ripples in the water when a stone is thrown . it is the vibrations of seismic waves that cause most of the destruction of earthquakes
  20. seismology
    the study of earthquakes
  21. focus
    the point within the crust at which the earthquake actually occurs
  22. epicentre
    the point on the earths surface which is directly above the focus (this is the nearest point a human can get to the centre of an earthquake
  23. the depth of the focus is very important in
    determining the magnitude of the quake
  24. there are 3 main categories of focus
    • shallow focus (0 - 70 km deep)
    • intermediate focus (71 - 300 km deep)
    • deep focus (300 - 700 km deep)
  25. the deeper the focus the ..... powerful the earthquake
  26. the size/magnitude of an earthquake is measured by a machine called a
  27. there are .... scales to assess the magnitude of the quake
  28. scale 1 =
    Richter scale
  29. the scale goes from
    1- 12
  30. each level is ..... the size of the previous one
  31. 0.5 Richter scale =
    large hand grenade
  32. 2 Richter scale
    WW2 bombs
  33. 3.5 Richter scale
    Chernobyl nuclear disaster
  34. 5 Richter scale
    Nagasaki bomb
  35. 10 Richter scale
    same as for an estimate of a 2km diameter meteorite impacting earth at 25km/h
  36. 12 Richter scale
    estimates as enough to cause a crack fault in the earth causing it to split in half
  37. note the energy referred to is that of the underground energy release i.e. at the
  38. the largest recorded earthquake was the
    Great Chilean earthquake of 1960 which had a magnitude of 9.5
  39. scale 2 =
    Mercalli Intensity Scale
  40. scale 2 quantifies
    the effects of an earthquake on the earth's surface , humans , objects of nature and man made structures
  41. scale 2 is on a scale of
    1 through to 12 , with 1 denoting not felt and 12 total destruction
  42. the data from scale 2 is gathered from
    individuals who experienced the quake with an intensity value being given to their location  . Data is not gathered from a machine
  43. this means that scale 2 is
    subjective as it is based on what people in different areas feel and their observations of damage to buildings/surroundings