Human development and gametogenesis lab

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reginaphalange9
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Human development and gametogenesis lab
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2013-05-25 16:47:54
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  1. Contents of head of sperm
    Acrosome, DNA (23 chromosomes)
  2. contents of midpiece of sperm
    mitochondria, centrioles (act as motor)
  3. tail of sperm
    flagellum
  4. Where does spermatogenesis take place?
    seminal vesicles
  5. list five versions of sperm
  6. oogonia undergoes _______ (cell division)
    mitosis
  7. primary oocyte is in what phase of meiosis?
    prophase 1
  8. secondary oocyte is in what phase of meiosis?
    metaphase 2
  9. ovum is in what phase of meiosis?
    meiosis 2 completed
  10. after sperm penetration but before fusion of male and female pronuclei, the structure is called
    ovum
  11. fusion of male and female nuclei
    zygote
  12. what structure is ovulated?
    secondary oocyte
  13. discarded secondary oocyte
    polar body
  14. where does fertilization usually occur?
    ampulla of uterine tube
  15. sperm can survive for ______ hours in female reproductive tract
    48-72 hours
  16. egg must be fertilized within _____ hours
    12-24
  17. zygote divides:  2 cell stage and 4 cell stage
    blastomere
  18. 8 cell and 16 cell
    morula
  19. morula begins growing inner cell mass, becomes ______
    blastocycst
  20. fluid filled cavity in blastocyst
    blastocoele
  21. single layer of cells in blastocyst (not the inner cell mass)
    trophoblast
  22. rapid mitotic cell division without cell growth
    cleavage
  23. 2 parts of blastocyst and what they become
    • trophoblast: placenta
    • inner cell mass: embryo
    • blastocoele: cavity
  24. trophoblast divides into two layers
    • syncytiotrophoblast
    • cytotrophoblast
  25. cells on perimeter of trophoblast touching endometrium
    syncytiotrophoblast
  26. syncytiotrophoblast secretes what enzyme, for what purpose
    • hyaluronidase
    • erode and burrow into endometrium
  27. cytotrophoblast function
    maintains boundary of blastocyst
  28. extensions of cytotrophoblast covered with syncytiotrophoblast put out to tap into blood supply
    chorionic villi
  29. what hormone keeps corpus luteum alive to secrete progesterone and estrogen?
    human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
  30. Inner cell mass divides into two layers, whole thing is called
    embryonic disc
  31. two layers of embryonic disc
    endoderm and ectoderm
  32. faces blastocoele
    endoderm
  33. surrounds and forms amniotic cavity
    ectoderm
  34. endoderm forms the _______
    yolk sac
  35. yolk sac
    site of embryonic blood cells and gonadal stem cells
  36. gastrulation
    formation of mesoderm and primitive streak
  37. raised dorsal groove that establishes the longitudinal axis of the embryo
    primitive streak
  38. formation of body organs, occurs when?
    organogenesis; after gastrulation (once it has all 3 layers)
  39. formed by endoderm
    • epithelial lining of GI and lower repsiratory tract
    • all ducts entering GI tract
    • urinary bladder
  40. formed by ectoderm
    • nervous system
    • epidermis
    • lining of mouth and anus
    • sense organs (i.e. eyes)
  41. formed by mesoderm
    • muscle
    • bone
    • cartilage
    • blood
    • dermis and hypodermis
    • kidneys, ovaries, testes
    • lining of body cavities
  42. how long is the human gestational period (from fertilization to parturition)?
    -how long if calculating from last period?
    38 weeks from fertilization

    40 weeks from first day of menstrual cycle
  43. small outpocketing at caudal end of yolk sac that will become umbilical cord and part of urinary bladder
    Allantois
  44. embryo forms inside ______ cavity
    amniotic cavity
  45. what becomes the placenta?
    blastocoele
  46. what germ layer forms the yolk sac?
    endoderm
  47. embryo gets blood and nutrients from mother's _______________
    umbilical vein
  48. what structure removes waste from baby?
    umbilical arteries
  49. when is placenta fully formed?
    3rd month of pregnancy
  50. 6 hormones of the placenta
  51. Hormone that maintains integrity of corpus luteum and promotes continued secretion of progesterone
    Secreted by what?
    Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)

    secreted by trophoblast and placenta
  52. hormone that prepares the mammary glands for milk production
    • Human Placental Lactogen (hPL)
    • and Placental Prolactin
  53. Placental hormone that relaxes connective tissue of pelvis and cervix
    How does it work?
    Relaxin

    suppresses release of oxytocin by hypothalamus
  54. Placental hormone that maintains endometrial linings
    progesterone and estrogen
  55. Describe oxygen levels of umbilical arteries and veins
    Arteries are deoxygenated

    Veins and oxygenated
  56. define chorion
    • embryonic contribution to placenta
    • contains chorionic villi

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