PPP 3 (people to know)

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PPP 3 (people to know)
2013-05-25 16:42:26
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PPP exam - history and design types
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  1. Christopher Wren
    • Royal ArchitectDates/Era:English Baroque
    • Location: London, England
    • Significance:
    • - Masterplan for London after Great Fire of 1666 (not used)
    • - St. Paul’s Cathedral in 1710
    • - Designed 52 London churches
  2. Kevin Lynch
    • Urban PlannerDates/Era:1950s/1960s! !
    • Location: New England, USA
    • Significance:
    • - Studied under FLW at Taliesin/Professor at MIT
    • - Coined “imageability” and “wayfinding”
    • - Wrote The Image of the City how users perceive and organize space as they navigate through cities.  Also known as legibility, the ease with which people understand the layout of a place based on the following:
    • Paths:  streets, sidewalks, trails that people travel on
    • Edges: perceived boundaries like walls, buildings, shorelines
    • Districts: city sections distinguished by some identity/ character
    • Nodes: focal points, intersections
    • Landmarks: readily identifiable objects become reference points
  3. Christopher Alexander
    • Title: Architect
    • Dates/Era: 1970s - present
    • Location: California, USA
    • Significance:
    • - Wrote A Pattern Language which described a practical architectural system in what’s called a “generative form”.   It provides rules to follow but leaves aesthetic and design decisions to the architect based on the environment.  Offers methods for construction of practical/safe designs for everything from regions to hardware fixtures.
  4. Jane Jacobs
    • Title: Writer/Activist
    • Dates/Era:1950/1960s
    • Location: New York City, USA/Toronto, Canada
    • Significance:
    • - Wrote The Death and Life of Great American Cities which is a critique of urban renewal policy of the 1950s and how they destroyed communities and created isolated, unnatural urban spaces.  Wanted to abolish zoning laws and restore free markets in land.  Wanted dense, mixed-use neighborhoods and vibrant communities - Frequently cited Greenwich Village as an example of a vibrant urban community
    • - Coined phrase “eyes on the street” a reference to natural surveillance by people in their neighborhood
  5. Camillo Sitte
    • Title: Architect
    • Dates/Era: Late 1800s
    • Location: Europe
    • Significance:
    • - Authority on urban construction planning/regulation in Europe
    • - Thought that the experience of an irregular urban structure with big plazas and monuments was more appropriate than the hygienic planning procedures in practice at the time.
    • - Wrote City Planning According to Artistic Principles which suggested that the quality of urban space is more important than architectural form (the whole is much more than sum of its parts)
    • - Planning cannot be done in two dimensions, but three.
    • - Believed Greek spaces like the agora (gathering place) or forum (marketplace) were good urban spaces
    • - Said a public square should be seen as a room and should form an enclosed space - Churches and monuments shouldn’t be isolated, but integrated into the squares
  6. Baron Haussmann
    • Title: Civic Planner
    • Dates/Era: Mid 1800s
    • Location: Paris, France
    • Significance:
    • - Responsible for the plan to rebuild and “modernize” Paris under Napoléon III 
    • - Encompassed all aspects of urban planning, both in the city center and in the surrounding districts. 
    • - Cut down the Luxembourg Garden and destroyed much of the old city with twisting streets and rundown apartments
    • - Built new wide tree lined boulevards.  Placed regulations on facades/heights of buildings, public parks, sewers/waterworks, facilities and monuments. 
    • - Influenced by the frequency street revolutions, now streets were too broad for rebels to build barricades and military could assemble and get through
  7. Tony Garnier
    • Title: Architect/City Planner
    • Dates/Era: 1920s
    • Location: Lyon, France
    • Significance:
    • - Wrote Une Cité Industrial which suggested that functions of a city could be separated by zoning into four categories: leisure, industry, work, and transportationWasdeveloped in response to the industrial revolution
    • Schoolsand vocational schools are placed near the industries they’re related to, and there are no churches or government/police buildings so man can rule himself. 
    • Pioneeredthe use of reinforced concrete
    • Designedinnovative building block with free standing houses Enormousopen spaces.  There are few squares or parksTreesare incorporated into important streets
  8. Sir Ebenezer Howard
    • Title: Writer/Parliament Recorderkeeper
    • Dates/Era: 1910s
    • Location: London, UK
    • Significance:
    • - Wrote Garden Cities of To-morrow which describe a utopian city where people live harmoniously with nature, the basis for the Garden City Movement.  “ThreeMagnets” pull a people are: town, country, town-countrySuburbantowns of limited size, but financially independent could be planned ahead and surrounded by a belt of agricultural land, balancing the desire for the city and the country.  These cities would be connected by a ring of rail transportation and surround a large central city. 
  9. Pierre Charles L’Enfant
    • Title:Architect/Civil Engineer
    • Dates/Era:Late 1700’s/Early 1800’s
    • Location: New York, USA
    • Significance:
    • - Submitted plans for the federal city in Washington DC that followed a Baroque planning elements including grand radial avenues, sight lines, ceremonial spaces, and respect of natural contours of the land.  The two most important buildings on the avenues were to be the houses of Congress and the President.Visualconnections would be made down avenues to ideal sites throughout the city, including buildings, monuments, and fountainsWasdismissed of his duties and city plan was awarded to surveyor Andrew Ellicott, who's revisions became the basis for the developmentIn1901 a partial redesign of the capital used L’Enfant’s plans, including the development of the national mall where his largest avenue was originally intended.
  10. Daniel Burnham
    • Title: Architect/Urban Planner
    • Dates/Era:Late 1800s/Early 1900s
    • Location: Chicago USA
    • Significance:
    • - Instrumental in the development of the skyscraper, key contributor to the Chicago School, and served as director of the World’s Columbian Expo
    • Studiedunder William LeBaron Jenny and opened a firm with John Root
    • Designedone of the first skyscrapers: the Masonic Temple Building, which was 21 stories tall, and a skeleton frame
    • Designedthe Flatiron Building in New York and Union Station in Washington DC
    • Designedthe Monadnock, Reliance Building, Rookery offices, the general plan for the World’s Columbian Expo in Chicago
    • Preparedthe Plan of Chicago which laid out plans for the future of the city which controlled growth and suggested that every citizen should be within walking distance of a park
    • Helpedwith McMillan Plan which led to overall design of the national mall in Washington DC
  11. William LeBaron Jenney
    • Title: Architect
    • Dates/Era:Late 1800s
    • Location: Chicago, USA
    • Significance:
    • - “The Father of the American Skyscraper”
    • - Designed the Home Insurance Building the first fully metal framed building, considered to be the first skyscraper (8 stories)
    • -Usedmasonry, iron, and terra cotta flooring and partitions for fireproof construction
  12. Clarence Stein
    • Title: Architect/Urban Planner
    • Dates/Era: Early 1900s
    • Location: New York City, USA
    • Significance:
    • - Major proponent of the Garden City Movement in the USA
    • Collaboratedwith Henry Wright to design Rayburn, New Jersey a garden suburb noted for its superblock layout.  There was total separation between the automobile and the pedestrian. 
  13. Lewis Mumford
    • Title: Historian/Author
    • Dates/Era: 1950s - 1980s
    • Location: New York City, USA
    • Significance:
    • - Beleved that what sets humans apart from animals is not our use of tools, but our use of language/symbols. 
    • friendswith Frank Lloyd Wright, Clarence Stein, Edmund Bacon
    • Criticalof urban sprawl and argued that the structure of modern cities is partially responsible for social problems seen in western society.  Argues that urban planning should emphasize organic relationships between people and their living spaces
    • Saidthe medieval city should be the basis of the ideal city.  Modern cities are too much like Roman cities (a sprawling megalopolis) which ended in collapse. 
  14. Frederick Law Olmstead
    • Title:Journalist/Landscape Architect
    • Dates/Era Late 1800s
    • Location: New York City, USA
    • Significance:
    • - “The father of Landscape Architecture”
    • Famousfor designing Central Park and Prospect Park  as well as many parks throughout the country
  15. Clarence Perry
    • Title: Planner/Writer
    • Dates/Era:1920s/1930s
    • Location: New York City, USA
    • Significance:
    • - A strong advocate of the neighborhood community and recreation center
    • WroteThe Neighborhood Theory which served as a framework to design functional, self-contained neighborhoods in industrial cities.  Included the following core principles:
    • - No major traffic through residential areas, arterial streets should form the perimeter to define the “place” of the neighborhood
    • Interiorstreets to use cul-de-sacs and curves for low volume traffic
    • Population would be determined by the number of people needed to support one school, and would be about 160 acres with 10 families per acre.
    • The school would be at the center of the neighborhood so that a child would have to walk 1/4 mile - 1/2 mile, and without crossing any major streets
    • Shopping,churches, services would be placed on the edge of the neighborhood so that nonlocal traffic wouldn’t intrude on the neighborhood
    • 10%of the land area would be dedicated to parks and open space for community
  16. Patrick Geddes
    • Title: Biologist/Town Planner
    • Dates/Era:Late 1800s
    • Location: France
    • Significance:
    • - Responsible for introducing the concept of region to architecture
    • Believedthat by changing spatial form, it would be possible to change the social structure as well
    • Emphasizedthe preservation of human life and energy rather than superficial beautification.  The happiness, health, and comfort of all residents is more important than the roads and park for the rich.
  17. Le Corbusier
    • Title: Architect
    • Dates/Era:1910s - 1950s
    • Location: France
    • Significance:
    • - One of the pioneers of Modern Architecture 
    • Distancedhimself from the past, and based designs on functionality without ornamentation
    • Developedthe Five Points of Architecture which included: pilotis (reinforced concrete stilts), a free facade (non supporting walls designed however), open plan (no structure in the way), ribbon windows (for unencumbered views), and roof garden (green area consumed by the building on the ground was relocated to the roof)
    • DevelopedThe Modulor a continuation of architectural scale and proportion based off the human body, the golden ratio, fibonacci numbers, and the double unit
  18. Louis Sullivan
    • Title: Architect
    • Dates/Era: Late 1800s/Early 1900s
    • Location: Chicago, USA
    • Significance:
    • - Father of the modern skyscraper, critic of the Chicago School, mentor to Frank Lloyd Wright, and inspiration to the Prairie " " "  School.
    • Used steel frames with terra cotta to create tall buildings that emphasized verticality
    • Believedthat the exterior of a building should reflect its inter structure and function.  Ornamentation must be derived from nature rather than classical architecture of the past
  19. Frank Lloyd Wright
    • Title: Architect
    • Dates/Era:Early 1900s
    • Location: Chicago, USA
    • Significance:
    • - Leader of the Prairie School, and emphasized structures built in harmony with humanity and its environment, notably seen in Fallingwater. 
  20. Buckminister Fuller
    • Title:Architect/Engineer/Inventor
    • Dates/Era: Mid 1900s
    • Location: Los Angeles, USA
    • Significance:
    • - Developed the geodesic dome, and futuristic prototype housing
  21. Walter Gropius
    • Title: Architect
    • Dates/Era: 1910s-1950s
    • Location: Germany/Boston, USA
    • Significance:
    • - Founder of the Bauhaus School, pioneer of modern architecture, and the International Style. 
    • emphasizedthe gesamtkunstwerk or total work of art
  22. Ludwig Hilbersimer
    • Title: Architect/Urban Planner
    • Dates/Era: 1920s-1950s
    • Location: Germany/Chicago, USA
    • Significance:
    • - Taught at the Bauhaus
    • WroteCity Plan which emphasized street hierarchy including safety for children to walk to walk to school while increasing the speed of vehicular circulation
    • Developedstudies for the new town center which was a dissolution of major cities and a complete penetration of landscape and settlement
    • In order to create a sustainable relationship between human,s industry, and nature, human habitation should be built in a way to secure people against disaster and crisis
  23. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
    • Title: Architect
    • Dates/Era:1920s-1950s
    • Location: Germany/Chicago, USA
    • Significance:
    • - Pioneer of modern architecture,
    • “Less is more” and “God is in the details”
    • Soughta rational approach that would guide architecture through a creative process
  24. Charles McKim
    • Title: Architect
    • Dates/Era:Late 1800s
    • Location: Germany/Boston, USA
    • Significance:
    • - Member of McKim, Mead, and White bringing beaux-arts architecture to America.  Notable buildings include Boston Public Library, Penn Station, New York Herald Building
  25. Phillip Johnson
    • Title: Architect
    • Dates/Era: 1940s - 2000s
    • Location: New England, USA
    • Significance:
    • - Modern architect that worked in simple materials and glass.  Notablebuildings include the Glass House and The Seagram Building