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Tax increment financing
Method cities use to issue bonds to pay for improvements (such as new sewers or streets) within a specified district that are intended to stimulate private development within the district. During the time of redevelopment, taxes are based on the assessed valuation prior to the redevelopment. After the development (the tax increment) is used to repay the bonds.
General obligation bonds
Bonds typically used to fund a specific project, such as a library or fire station. They are not used to encourage private development, although, later private development could be a consequence of the new public facility being constructed (such as apartments or restaurants built in the vicinity of a publicly funded baseball stadium). Because all taxpayers in the jurisdiction issuing the general obligation bonds must pay off the bonds through a property tax, a voter majority is required.
Developer impact fees
Generally used to fund infrastructure improvements made necessary by new development. Although these fees are a common method of raising money, they can have a negative effect because developers look for areas to build in where fees are not charges
Business improvement districts
Used to fund public space improvements, such as streetscapes, to enhance an area's appeal and indirectly its property values. Taxes are assessed on those property owners in the district who would benefit from the improvements, so this type of financing is not intended to encourage private development.
Ad valorem tax
Tax based on the value of the property being taxed
What location on a hilll is best?
Midway on a hill is best (top is too windy, fog/cold air settles in valley)
Building Surveys Types
- Field Measurements: taken by handLaser
- Scanning: remotely measure existing spaces (quick)
- Photogrammetry: establish control points and hand survey to get base coordinate system (takes much longer than laser scanning)
Determine the Land Value
- Comparison Method
- Development Method
- Residual/Income Approach Method
- Allocation Method
Complete Preliminary Analysis/Predesign and Research
- Documenting existing conditions, programing the intended function/use of the building and site, doing research to investigate historic nature of project/area, determining which parts of the buildings are original and sequence of construction
- Complete preliminary cost estimate of work to be done, and prepare applications for federal grants.
Complete Design Phase
- Coordinate with standard steps of the building design process
- Coordinate preservation with architecture/engineering development
- Coordinate with speciﬁcation/front end
Complete Document Phase
- Coordinate with drawings, specs, ﬁnal cost estimate
- Coordinate with bidding/negotiation phase
- Coordinate with construction administration, observation, and documentation
- Reports for maintenance, determination of historic eligibility for review boards may be required
limitations and stipulations used in residential settings. Can be aesthetic (allowable color pallets, vegetation types/pruning, fencing materials) pet control (how many and/or living conditions), or storage related (visibility of parked cars/boats/campers).
Winds! Basic Speed
- Basic Speed=70 - 80 miles/hour Unnoticeable=< 50 feet/minute
- Pleasant=50 - 100 feet/minute!
- Pleasant and noticeable=100 - 200 feet/minute
- Drafty= 200 - 300 feet/minute
- Uncomfortable=+ 300 feet/minute
- Pressure varies as the square of the velocity (if velocity doubles, pressure quadruples)
an extensive linear arrangement of cities
Typical US room size = 12’-6” x 20’-0”
Standard classrooms = 800 - 1,000 sf
- Standard single patient rooms are 150 sf and double rooms are 200 sf (they share bathroom and lavatory)
- Nurse stations should monitor 25 - 35 beds and be centrally located
Hot & Dry
minimize sun exposure and effects of wind. Use small windows. Optimize thermal mass for large temperature swing during the day, and closely cluster buildings for the shade the offer each other.
Hot & Humid
minimize sun exposure, maximize natural ventilation. Use lightweight construction to minimize radiation of heat and space buildings far apart for breezes
maximize solar gain in the winter, minimize in the summer. Maximize breezes in the summer, minimize in the winter. Take advantage of daylighting opportunities
orient buildings/openings for maximum protection from cold winds and use small windows/compact shapes to minimize heat loss. Use south facing windows to maximize solar gains.
public enterprise revenue bond
- to fund a public enterprise that will produce revenue; the bond is repaid with the money generated by the facility
- used to fund projects like airports, hospitals, or a stadium
- orginally explored by oscar newman in the 1970s
- when residents have ability to oversee the street, their feelings of association with the neighborhood are further increased
- allow residents to control areas around their homes
- creating sense of ownership
- provide daily convenience goods and services
- most have a grocery store or pharmacy as the anchor. neighborhood centers serve about 7500 to 20000 people within a six-minute driving radius. the center generally occupies about 4 to 10 acres with a building area of about 30,000 to 75,000sf and an average building size of about 40,000sf
often anchored by a large supermarket and often contain some type of variety store in addition to small services and specialty stores. this type of shopping centers serves approximately 20,000 to 100,000 people. community centers range in size from about 100,000 to 300,000sf with an average size of about 150,000sf. the center generally occupies 10 to 30 acres
- typical american shopping mall
- a cluster of large big box retailers
- draw from a large geographical area and serve 100,000 to 250,000 people, generally with an average building area of about 40,000sf
- total built area may range from 300,000sf to over 1,000,000sf
- center generally occupies about 20 to 50 acres
crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED)
- concept the national crime prevention institute evolved from defensible space ideas
- relies on the inhabitants to police their own surroundings
- goal is to design an environment that encourages them to do so by clearly defining public and private spaces and by making streets, parking areas, and building entrances more visible to those who live in the area
- act of revising a written document over and over until two parties can agree on its contents
- process is lengthy and time-consuming but can be effective when two groups are very far apart in their opinion on an issue and there is a lot of contention
- programmer can serve as a neutral third party and attempt to negotiate a compromise
- phenomenon of "decision by deference"
- generally results in a mediocre product because issues are glossed over and everyone in the group adops the thinking of the leader without challenging the validity of the ideas presented and seeking alternatives
encourages participants to generate as many ideas as possible with little regard for their feasibility and with no critiques of ideas allowed
nonlinear thinking that creates a number of alternatives for later evaluation
- approach to town planning that advocates more diverse housing opportunities and less dependence on the car
- reaction to urban sprawl
- referred to as smart growth
- mass transit within walking distance of homes and businesses
- mixed-use zoning
- blend of single-family homes and apartments in the same neighborhood
- more independence for those who cannot drive or do not own a car
- narrow streets and frequent 90degree intersections, to encourage drivers to be alert and make pedestrian paths safer while making the neighborhood easier to navigate
- on-street or small lot parking to encourage interaction