PPP 1.txt

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sabrinarusso
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221120
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PPP 1.txt
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2013-05-25 15:50:04
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ARE
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ARE PPP exam
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    • author "me"
    • tags "ARE exams"
    • description "PPP exam"
    • fileName "PPP 1"
    • freezingBlueDBID -1.0
    • Process of design
    • 1) statement of problem
    • 2) collection of data
    • 3) analysis of data
    • 4) program
    • 5) design concepts
    • 6) design development
    • 7) construction documents
  1. Design aspects
    • 1) circulation
    • 2) health
    • 3) adaptive
    • 4) cost
  2. Linear pattern
    • - single spine having one principal location
    • - limited by development of land
    • - useful where major circulation occurs between two points
    • - if length is reasonable, it can be economical form but lacks a focus and may become congested
  3. Axial pattern
    • - variation of linear pattern
    • - central axis, spine or mall around which structures are arranged
    • - allow for incremental development with relative ease and minor disruption however may become extended
  4. Radial pattern
    • - consists of central core
    • - appropriate when elements have common origin or destination
    • - somewhat inflexible
    • - compact and allows max of social interaction
  5. Grid pattern
    • - emphasis on flexibility
    • - simple, convenient, compact and suited for complex distribution flows
    • - can become monotonous unless it has several points of focus such as public spaces or buildings
  6. Precinctual pattern
    • - dispersed activities which may or may not have central focus
    • - allow growth development in any direction
    • - flexible, compact, efficient, often quit economical
  7. Determinants of form
    • - site-structure relationship
    • - site-form relationship
    • - vegetation
    • - climate
    • - structure
    • - mechanical systems
    • - materials
    • - traditional form
    • - function
    • - cultural association
    • - scale
    • - proportion
    • - massing and profile
    • - hierarchy
  8. Programming process
    • 1) establish objectives
    • 2) collect data
    • 3) formulate relationships
    • 4) establish priorities
    • 5) program statement
  9. Cities are...
    • Noisier
    • Drier
    • Dustier
    • More polluted
    • Also wetter- more rain, clouds, fog
    • More glare
  10. Comfort zone
    • Winter: 63-71 degrees farinheit
    • Summer: 66-75 degrees fairnheit
    • Within 30 to 60% humidity
  11. Doubling distance between the source and receiver diminishes sound level by
    Six decibels
  12. Sound intensity decreases in proportion to square of the distance from point source, doubling the distance reduces sound to-
    -To one quarter
  13. Pro-forma
    Financial analysis of a building project, which involves cost and return on investment
  14. Cost of money
    Principal and interest payments
  15. Debt ceiling
    Total debt a municipality may incur
  16. Design/Award/ Build
    • Owner participation
    • Well-established construction costs based upon relatively completed documents
    • Requires extended time period for design and documentation before final costs can be determined and construction can begin
  17. Construction Management delivery method
    • Owner can determine costs before CDs are completed
    • Allows for parts of construction to start before drawings are done
    • Added cost to hire CM
  18. Design/build delivery method
    • Single source of responsibility
    • Allows owner to select from a number of submitted designs
    • Reliable cost is determined early
    • Facilitates fast-track design
  19. Requirements for smokeproof enclosure is determined by
    Total height
  20. Poor drainage is indicated by
    • Existing high water table
    • Relatively flat site
    • No storm drainage system
  21. General overhead cost
    • Advertising
    • Automobile
    • Consulting fees
    • Entertainment
    • Furniture
    • Heat
    • Insurance
    • Interest
    • Legal expenses
    • rent
    • Salaries
    • Stationery
    • Supplies
    • Taxes
    • Telephone
    • Travel
    • Utilities
    • Wages (staff)
  22. Project overhead costs
    • Bonds
    • Equipment storage
    • Heat/air conditioning
    • Insurance
    • Interest
    • Light, power, water
    • Office maintenance
    • Permits
    • Project office
    • Project telephone
    • Sanitary facilities
    • Security
    • Stationery and supplies
    • Taxes
    • Temporary enclosures
    • Temporary walks and stairs
    • Transportation
    • Trash removal
  23. General insurance
    • Fire
    • Owner's contingencies
    • Property damage
    • Public liability
    • Windstorm
    • Workers compensation
  24. Misc insurance
    • Automobile
    • Boiler
    • Earthquake
    • Flood
    • Forgery
    • Payroll
    • Plate glass
    • Rain
    • Theft
    • Vehicle
    • Wind
  25. Survey Baseline
    Parallel (line that follows latitudes of earth) used as the basis for the east-west layout of the US Survey system
  26. Metes-and-bounds
    Verbal description of land that begins at a known point and describes the bearing and length of each side of the property until the point of the beginning is reached
  27. Albedo
    How much radiant energy that is reflected by a surface where 0 is flat black and 1 is a mirror
  28. Mothballing
    Term used in historic preservation when you designate certain areas to be repaired or restored at a later date, under a later contract
  29. Secretary of Interior's Standard for Rehabilitation
    • Allow for new additions /alterations to be different from the older structure, but must be complementary in massing, size, scale and architectural features
    • Criteria must be met if Federal Tax Credit will be used
    • Takes precedence over state/local regulations
    • Clients may discover historical significance during site analysis. Archeological activity and proper handling of structures /artifacts must take place
  30. Anthropomorphic
    Relating to human characteristics
  31. Fathom
    Measure of spread of arms
  32. Density required for public transit to be effective/efficient
    30 people per acre or 1 person per 1,452sf
  33. Primary social interactions
    Intimate social interactions where person develops as an individual. Friends and family are in this cluster.
  34. Secondary social interactions
    Less intimate and more specialized where person finds and develops their place in society. Work friends, hobby groups, clubs are in this cluster.
  35. Chrysotile
    White asbestos, accounts for 95% of asbestos found
  36. Amosite
    Brown asbestos
  37. Crocidolite
    blue asbestos
  38. R-value
    Measure of thermal resistance in a component (U-value=1/R-value) can typically the opposite of a u-value.
  39. U-factor
    Measure of heat transmission where a low u-value has a slow heat loss or gain (brick wall) and a high u-value has a rapid heat loss or gain
  40. National Park Service Standards for Preservation
    Use a property as it was historically intended to or maximize the rendition of distinctive materials, features, spaces, and spatial relationships if there is change
  41. Btu
    The abbreviation for British Thermal unit, a unit of heat energy, which is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit.
  42. General conditions
    Part of the contract documents which states the rights, responsibilities and relationships of the parties involved (owner/arch/consultant/contractor/sub/vendor)
  43. Supplementary general conditions
    Additional conditions, included in the project manual, that are used to modify the General Conditions of the contract in order to allow for any specific legal, climatic, or site conditions of a project
  44. Special conditions
    Additional to supplementary conditions. Usually requested by government or local building agencies. Used when supplementary needs to be further extended.
  45. General requirements
    Defines specific procedures that a contractor must follow
  46. Land assessment methods
    • 1) income approach
    • 2) market approach
    • 3) cost approach
  47. Behavior settings
    Particular place, with definable boundaries and objects within the place, in which a standing pattern of behavior occurs at a particular time
  48. Proxemics
    A term coined by Edward T. Hall used to describe the study of spatial requirements of humans and the effects of population density on behavior, communication, and social interaction
  49. Territoriality
    Behavioral system in which a person, animal or group lays claim to an area and defends it against others
  50. City planning in US was influenced by
    • Colombian Exposition of 1893
    • The Ordinance of 1785
    • Garnier's cite industrielle
    • The Industrial Revolution
  51. Zeitgeist
    Intellectual, cultural, and artistic culture of a time and place
  52. Rehabilitation
    Emphasizes the retention and repair of history materials but gives some latitude for replacement of damaged materials
  53. Preservation
    Most historically accurate
  54. Size of a land section
    1 mile
  55. Check size (land)
    24 miles
  56. Township size
    6 miles on a side
  57. Quarter section size
    0.5 miles on a side
  58. Baseline
    Parallel used as a primary starting point for the east-west layout of the US survey system
  59. Guide meridian
    A meridian between the principal meridians
  60. Meridian
    North-South lines that follow the longitudes of the earth and that are used as the basis for the US survey system
  61. Metes-and-bound property description
    Verbal description of land that begins at a known point and describes the bearing and length of each side of the property, in turn, until the point of beginning is reached
  62. Parallels
    East-west lines that follow the latitude of the earth
  63. Principal meridian
    A meridian that serves as the basis for the north-south grid layout of the US survey system
  64. Range
    The row of townships running north and south from a principal meridian, given a number to describe where it is located north and south of baseline
  65. Standard Parallels
    Parallels between the baselines in the US survey system
  66. Township
    The row of townships running east and west from a baseline, given a number to describe where it is located east or west of a principal meridian

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