- Round headed arches, arcades, symbolism, sometimes squished elements to ﬁt into tight spaces
Dates/Era: 1100s - 1300s
- Popular for religious structures, and featured the development of the pointed arch, buttressing, and ribbed vaults.
allowed for thinner walls, larger glass windows, and vaults to be constructed over bays that were square/rectangular/odd shaped
Dates/Era: Late 1760s- 1790s
Location: England/Colonial America, USA
- General buildings were 5 bays with 2 stories and a central door, a double gambrel roof, quoining, heavy detailing (molding proﬁle, keystone) thick chimney, 12 over 12 windows that were small compared to the building mass, and mutule blocks
Dates/Era: 1790s - 1820s
- Style that originated from Pompeii. Delicatedetail & ornamentation, 12 over 12 windows, circulate window in pediment, pilasters that create arcade, splayed/point lintel, ﬁnely carved moldings, fan/transom lights around doorway
Dates/Era:1840s - 1860s
- Looks like a temple with chunky details, arched columnist with correct proportions, full pediment, correct entablature (cornice, freeze, architrave), 6 over 6 windows, squared lintel, earlier examples have lower pitched roofFacadeswere in antis (two columns and two pilasters on facade)
Dates/Era: 1850s - 1860s
Location: England (never took off in US)
- sought to revive medieval forms in contrast to the neoclassical/beaux arts styles prevalent at the time. Associated w/churchessteeppitch roof, painted arches, verge board, wall dormers, irregular “L” shaped plan, ﬂat buttressing
Dates/Era:1865 - 1880
Location: England/Northern Europe/US
- Modeled on 16th century Italian renaissance architecture with picturesque aesthetics.verytall/elongated feeling with irregular or symmetrical plan, 2 over 2 long narrow windows, paired bracket, cupola, corner quoining, squared columns with chamfered corners, cast iron details, heavy hood moldings, multiple story bay windows, shallow dormers and narrow double leaf doors.
Dates/Era: 1870s - 1880’s
- Exactly like Italianate but with mansard roofs
Dates/Era: Late 1880s
Location: USA/New England
- Closely related to masonry, mimics the shape of stone, has shingles used as membrane, cavernous openings in gable are emphasized, as well as the overall volume of the building instead of details, gambrel roofs have curve edges, and shingles curve around corners and protrusions
- developed by H.H. Richardson, and basically a masonry version of the Shingle Style
Dates/Era: 1880s - 1900s
- Hybrid with Shingle Style that emphases many wild colors, scalloped shingles, gable screens (combined verge board) turrets/towers, irregular ﬂoor plan, clapboard siding, starburst motifs, weathervanes/ﬁnials, 1 over 1 windows typical, cube/pyramid roof, slate wallhangings/roof, chamfered bays, oriel windows, big windows with little on top
- Heavy, big proportions, with roundheaded arches, belt courses, different color stones, and ornamentation in sandstone.
American Four Square
Dates/Era: 1890s - 1930s
- A building type that can be applied to any style.
typicallya cube, with a door and window on ﬁrst ﬂoor and two windows on the second ﬂoor, and a hipped roof
Dates/Era: 1890s - 1930s
- Excessive in every way, classical columns, 8 over 8 sash windows or any # over 1 windows, blown out of scale details, swans neck pediments
Dates/Era: 1890s - 1920s
- Low and wide projections that emphasize horizontality, broad eves, stucco facades, windows and doors tucked under eaves for privacy.Typicallyassociated with Frank Lloyd Wright
Dates/Era:1913 - 1920s
- Low, small and modest construction that has a Japanese inﬂuence with square battered columns, exposed rafter tails, and emphasis of craftsmanship in design (clinkerbrick!) wide eaves, ideas borrowed from single style, and considered a digniﬁed middle class home
- Vertical/stripped down gothic that seems to go on forever to the sky, any ornamentation is replaced with mechanics, and alludes to speed and industry
Location: Western Europe
- An effort to industrialize craft traditions, which led to the Bauhaus school led by Gopius
Dates/Era:1790s - 1860s
Location: UK/Western Europe/USA
- Transition from manual labor to machine based manufacturing beginning with textile industries, and the increased use of coal. Cities became dirty, unsafe places.
- Prompted a reform movement that lead to many ideas about planning
Ordinance of 1785
- Started the rectangle survey system of the United States that reinforced the idea of grid planning that began with Penn’s plan for Philadelphia
Beaux Arts Architecture
Dates/Era: 1670s - 1960s
Location: Europe and the US (1880 - 1920)
- Academic neoclassical architectural style taught at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris.
Slightlyover scale details, bold sculpture, deep cornices, swags, ﬂat roof, hierarchy of spaces (from grand staircases to small utilitarian services), arched windows, arched/pedimented doors, classical details, symmetry, sculpture, murals, and coordinated artwork
In the US, the “White City” of the World’s Columbian Expo was an example of the movement.
City Beautiful Movement
Dates/Era: 1890s - 1900s
Location: United States (Chicago, Detroit, DC)
- Progressive architecture and urban planning movement with the intent of using beatiﬁcation and monumental grandeur in cities to counteract the moral decay of poverty stricken urban environments.
It wasn’t beauty for beauty’s sake, but for social control and improvement of the lives of the inner-city poor.
Dates/Era: 1980s - present
Location: United States
- Reform all aspects of development and urban planning (from urban remodels to suburban inﬁll) to contain a diverse range of housing and jobs and be walkable.
Ahwahnee Principles were developed by Duany, PlatterZebeck,Calthorpe, and others as a set of community principles for land use planning that reduce trafﬁc congestion, increase the supply of affordable housing, and rein in urban sprawl.
created by Hippodamus in 400 BC were the ﬁrst urban planned cities. They used a rectilinear grid pattern with a large central area which became the agora, the center of the city an the society.
attributed to Vitruvius in 30s BC were rectilinear grid patter enclosed in walled city, and built off of two main streets the cardus and decumanus. Towns were either for commerce or military.
typically built between 1100s-1350s and had no geometry or grid, but were walled for defense.
typically built between 1300s-1600s, had a town square that was the focus, and cities were often star shaped, and built off of medieval plan
typically built between 1600s - 1900s as a growth of the Renaissance. Used boulevards and avenues to connect various parts and expand the city.
style of architecture in Italy and elsewhere that evolved between the Renaissance and baroque periods
an expression of the manner, rather than the substance, of classical elements, and it was characterized by a lack of classical harmony and order, as well as the incongruous use of classical motifs
examples: Michelangelo's Medici Chapel and Laurentian Library