Medical Terminology Ch. 7, 8, 9, 10

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Medical Terminology Ch. 7, 8, 9, 10
2013-06-24 22:59:07
quick easy medical terminology Foothill College AHS 200

Quick and Easy Medical Terminology by Peggy C. Leonard, Ch.7: Circulatory System, Ch. 8: Respiratory System, Ch. 9:Digestive System, Ch.10: Urinary System
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  1. Cardiovascular System
    heart and blood vessels
  2. Lymphatic System
    structures involved in the conveyance of the fluid lymph
  3. Tricuspid Valve
    • on the right side
    • valve between the atria and ventricles
  4. Bicuspid valve
    • also known as the mitral valve, on the left side
    • valve between the atria and ventricles
  5. 4 chambers of the heart
    • right atrium
    • left atrium
    • right ventricle
    • left ventricle
  6. pericardium
    sac made of a double membrane that encloses the heart, outer membrane
  7. endocardium
    innermost membrane that forms the lining of the heart
  8. myocardium
    the heart muscle itself, thickest tissue of the heart
  9. coronary
    "encircling", refers to the way coronary arteries encircle the heart in a crownlike fashion
  10. angi/o, vas/o, vascul/o
  11. aort/o
  12. arter/o, arteri/o
  13. arteriol/o
  14. ather/o
    yellow fatty plaque
  15. phleb/o, ven/o
  16. venul/o
    venule, smaller vein
  17. cardiomyopathy
    primary disease of the heart muscle
  18. electrocardiogram
    a treadmill stress test measuring the function of the heart while the patient walks at various speeds
  19. echocardiography (echo)
    use of ultrasonography to diagnose heart disease
  20. echocardiogram
    recording of the heart obtained by directing ultrasonic waves through the chest wall
  21. cardiac catheterization
    passage of a long, flexible tube into the heart chambers through a vein in an arm, leg or neck
  22. angina pectoris
    severe chest pain, constriction about the heart caused by an insufficient supply of blood to the heart
  23. arrhythmia/dysrhythmia
    loss of rhythm of the heartbeat
  24. cardiomegaly
    enlarged size of the heart
  25. congestive heart failure (CHF)
    condition categorized by weakness, breathlessness and edema in lower parts of the body
  26. coronary artery disease (CAD)
    abnormal condition of the heart's arteries
  27. fibrillation
    - severe cardiac arrhythmia in which contractions are too rapid and uncoordinated for effective blood circulation
  28. defibrillator
    electronic apparatus that delivers a shock
  29. hyperipidemia
    excessive lipids (fats) in the blood
  30. hypertension
    elevated blood pressure
  31. hypotension
    low blood pressure
  32. infarction
    necrosis of a localized area of tissue caused by a lack of blood supply to the area
  33. myocardial infarction (MI)
    death of an area of the heart muscle due to lack of oxygen
  34. myocardial ischemia
    temporary deficiency of blood supply to the myocardium
  35. vasodilation
    increase in the diameter of the blood vessel
  36. vasoconstriction
    constriction of the blood vessel
  37. angiomas
    tumors consisting of blood vessels, usually benign
  38. arteriography
    radiography of arteries after injection of radiopaque material into the bloodstream
  39. arteriogram
    image produced from an arteriography
  40. hemorrhagic stroke
    blood vessel bursts and allows blood to seep into brain tissue
  41. thrombotic stroke
    plaque causes a clot that blocks blood flow
  42. embolic stroke
    a blood clot or other embolus reaches an artery  in the brain, lodges there and blocks the flow of blood
  43. cardiopulmonary bypass
    method used to divert blood away from the heart and lungs temporarily during surgery of the heart and lungs
  44. cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
    emergency first-aid procedure to reestablish heart and lung action if breathing or heart action has stopped
  45. thrombolytic agent
    administered through a catheter to dissolve the clot
  46. heparin
    oral anticoagulant, aka warfarin (Coumadin), prescribed for the treatment and prevention of thrombolytic disorders
  47. diuretics
    antihypertensive agent used to reduce the blood volume through greater excretion of water by the kidneys
  48. angioplasty
    surgical repair of blood vessles
  49. lymphoma
    cancer that originates in the lymphatic system
  50. lymphadema
    accumulation of lymph tissue and the resulting swelling
  51. splenectomy
    removal of a ruptured spleen
  52. tonsilectomy
    excision of the tonsils
  53. inspiration, inhalation
    air into the lungs
  54. expiration, exhaling
    air out of the lungs
  55. pulmonologist
    physician who specializes in the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the lungs
  56. diaphragm
    muscular wall that separates the abdomen, contracts and relaxes with each inspiration and expiration
  57. phrenic
    pertaining to the diaphragm
  58. pleura
    membrane surrounding the lungs and chest cavity
  59. pleural cavity
    space between the pleura covering the lungs and the pleura lining the thoracic cavity
  60. alveol/o
    alveolus, (pl. alveoli)
  61. bronch/o, bronchi/o
    bronchus (pl. bronchi)
  62. bronchiol/o
  63. epiglott/o
  64. laryng/o
    larynx (voice box)
  65. lob/o
  66. nas/o, rhin/o
  67. phren/o
  68. pleur/o
  69. pharyng/o
    pharynx (throat)
  70. pneum/o, pneumon/o, pulm/o, pulmon/o
  71. trache/o
  72. eu-
  73. -pnea
  74. brady-
  75. tachy-
  76. hyper-
    more than normal
  77. dyspnea
    labored or difficult breathing
  78. apnea
    temporary absence of breathing
  79. orthopnea
    a condition in which breathing is uncomfortable in any position except sitting erect or standing
  80. hyperventilation
    increased aeration of the lungs which reduces carbon dioxide levels
  81. spirometry
    measurement of the amount of air taken into and expelled from the lungs
  82. hypoxia, anoxia
    deficiency of oxygen
  83. bronchoscopy
    visual examination of the tracheobronchial tree using a bronchoscope
  84. pneumothorax
    air or gas in the chest cavity
  85. hemothorax
    blood in the pleural cavity
  86. ARDS
    Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome, respiratory insufficiency and hypoxemia
  87. asthma
    sudden attacks/reccurence of dyspnea (labored breathing) caused by spasms of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membranes
  88. wheeze
    whistling sound made during respiration
  89. atelectasis
    collapsed lung
  90. bronchiectasis
    dilation of a bronchus
  91. bronchography
    radiography of the bronchi after injection of a radiopaque substance
  92. carcinoma of the lung
    lung cancer
  93. emphysema
    chronic pulmonary disease characterized by an increase in the size of alveoli
  94. influenza
    acute, contagious, respiratory infection characterized by sudden onset, chill, headache, fever and muscular discomfort caused by different types of viruses
  95. nasal polyp
    protruding growth from the nasal mucosa
  96. COPD
    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, disease that decreases the lungs' ability to perform their ventilatory function
  97. pleuritis
    inflammation of the pleura
  98. pulmonary embolism
    blockage of a pulmonary artery by a foreign matter such as fat, air, tumor tissue, or blood clot
  99. SIDS
    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, sudden, unexpected death of an apparently normal and healthy infant that occurs during sleep
  100. TB
    tuberculosis, infectious disease caused by a bacteria (M. tuberculosis), chronic in nature and usually affects the lungs
  101. Asphyxiation
  102. Heimlich manuevar
    method of dislodging food or other obstructions from the windpipe
  103. tracheostomy
    opening in windpipe
  104. tracheotomy
    incision of trachea through the skin and muscles of the neck overlying the trachea
  105. Endotracheal intubation
    insertion of an airway tube through the mouth or nose into the trachea
  106. Nasotracheal / Orotracheal intubation
    referring to the insertion of tube into the the trachea through the nose or mouth, respectively
  107. -stomy
  108. -tomy
  109. Simple oxygen mask
    short-term oxygen therapy, or in an emergency
  110. Nasal cannula
    delivers oxygen by way of two small tubes inserted into the nostrils and use for long-term oxygen maintenance
  111. Transtracheal oxygen
    efficient long term method of delivering oxygen as alternative to nasal cannula
  112. lung biopsy
    removal of small pieces of lung tissue for the purpose of diagnosis
  113. Percutaneous biopsy
    obtained by puncturing the suspected lesion through the skin
  114. pneumonectomy
    surgical removal of all or part of a lung
  115. lobectomy
    surgical removal of a lobe of a lung
  116. rhinoplasty
    plastic surgery of the nose
  117. thoracocentesis / thoracentesis
    surgical puncture of the chest cavity to remove fluid
  118. LLL
    left lower lobe
  119. LUP
    left upper lobe
  120. R
  121. RDS
    Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  122. RLL
    right lower lobe
  123. RML
    right middle lobe
  124. RUL
    right upper lobe n
  125. SOB
    shortness of breath
  126. URI
    Upper Respiratory Infection
  127. hemoptysis
    coughing or spitting of blood from the mouth
  128. mediastinum
    space between the lungs where the heart and other structures are found
  129. rale
    abnormal chest sounds usually heard on inspiration due to air or fluid
  130. rhonchi
    abnormal chest sounds usually heard on expiration due to air or fluid
  131. ingestion
    oral intake of substances into the body
  132. digestion
    follows ingestion,  mechanical and chemical conversion of food into substances that will be absorbed by cells
  133. absorption
    process through which digested food particles pass through lining of small intestine into blood or lymph capillaries
  134. elimination
    removal of undigested food particles
  135. defecation
    elimination of waste through the anus in the form of feces
  136. -ose
  137. -ase
  138. -ation
    action or proces
  139. bil/i, chol/e
  140. cirrh/o
  141. de-
    down, from, reversing, removing
  142. glycos/o
  143. -orexia
  144. -pepsia
  145. vag/o
    vagus nerve
  146. viscer/o
    viscera (organ structure)
  147. alimentary tract
    digestive tract
  148. gastrointestinal
    referring to the stomach and the intestines
  149. cheil/o
  150. dent/i, dent/o, odont/o
  151. gingiv/o
  152. gloss/o, lingu/o
  153. or/o, stomat/o
    mouth; opening, "mouth-like" structures
  154. esophag/o
  155. gastr/o
  156. intestin/o,  enter/o
  157. 3 Divisions of small intestine
    duodenum, jejunum, ileum
  158. duoden/o
    duodenum, 1st division of the small intestine
  159. jejun/o
    jejunum, 2nd division of the small intestine
  160. ile/o
    ileum, 3rd division of the small intestine
  161. col/p, colon/o
    colon or large intestine
  162. append/o, appendic/o
  163. cec/o
  164. sigmoid/o
    sigmoid colon
  165. proct/o
    anus or rectum
  166. rect/o
  167. an/o
  168. cholecyst/o
  169. choledoch/o
    common bile duct
  170. hepat/o
  171. pancreat/o
  172. sial/o
    salivary gland
  173. bile
    produced by the liver, breaks down fats before absorption by small intestine
  174. biliary
    pertaining to ale
  175. insulin
    hormone that regulates blood sugar level secreted by pancreas
  176. biliary tract
    pathway for bile flow from the liver to the bile duct and into the duodenum
  177. gallstone
    biliary calculus, stone formed in the biliary tract
  178. jaundice
    yellowish discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes and white outer part of the eyeballs
  179. choledocholithiasis
    condition of stones in the common bile duct
  180. pancreatolithiasis
    condition of stones in the pancreas
  181. sialography
    examining salivary ducts by injecting radiopaque substances into the ducts
  182. colonoscopy
    endoscopic examination of the lining of the colon with a colonoscope
  183. sigmoidoscopy
    inspection of the rectum and sigmoid colon
  184. DM
    Diabetes mellitus, a disease in which there is a resistance to insulin or lack of insulin secretion  by the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas
  185. hyperglycemia
    increased level of glucose in the blood
  186. polyphagia
    excessive hunger and uncontrolled eating; symptom of DM
  187. polyuria
    excessive urination; symptom of DM
  188. polydipsia
    excessive thirst' symptom of DM
  189. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
    carbohydrate intolerance caused by a deficiency of insulin first recognized during pregnancy, disappears after the delivery of the infant
  190. hyperlipemia / hyperlipidemia
    increased amount of fat or lipids in the blood
  191. hyperemesis
    excessive vomiting
  192. anorexia
    loss of appetite for food
  193. Anorexia nervosa
    associated with psychologic stress or conflict, a disorder characterized by prolonged refusal to eat that results in emaciation
  194. Bulimia
    characterized by episodes of binge eating that often terminate in self-induced vomiting
  195. malnutrition
    depletion of nutrients for body cells
  196. malabsorption
    improper absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream from the intestines
  197. gingivitis
    inflammation of the gums
  198. glossitis
    inflammation of the tongue
  199. dysphagia
    inability to swallow or difficulty in swallowing
  200. gastritis
    inflammation of the stomach
  201. gastrocele
    herniation of the stomach
  202. gastroenteritis
    inflammation of the stomach and the intestinal tract
  203. appendicitis
    inflammation of the vermiform appendix
  204. colitis
    inflammation of the colon
  205. diverticulitis
    inflammation of a diverticulum in the intestinal tract, especially in the colon, causing constipation
  206. hemorrhoids
    masses of veins in the anal canal that are unnaturally distended and lie just inside or outside the rectum
  207. cholecystitis
    inflammation of the gall bladder
  208. cholelithiasis
    formulation or presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct
  209. cirrhosis
    chronic liver disease characterized by marked degeneration of liver cells
  210. hapatitis
    inflammation of the liver
  211. hpatomegaly
    enlargement of the liver
  212. diabetes
    general term for diseases characterized by excessive urination, ; usually refers to diabetes mellitus
  213. hypolycemia
    condition in which the blood glucose level is abnormally low; may be caused by excessive production of insulin by the pancreas
  214. pancreatitis
    inflammation of the pancreas
  215. gastric bypass
    surgery to reduce the stomach's capacity, used to treat extreme obesity
  216. laproscopic cholecystectomy
    gallbladder is excised with a laser and removed through a small incision in the abdominal wall
  217. appendectomy
    removal of the vermiform appendix
  218. colostomy
    creation of an artificial anus on the abdominal wall by incising the colon and drawing it out to the surface, performed when the feces cannot pass through the colon and out through the anus
  219. anastomiasis
    joining of two organs, vessels or ducts that are normally separate
  220. hemorrhoidectomy
    removal of hemorrhoids by any of several means, including surgery
  221. laproscopy
    examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope through one or more small incisions in the abdominal wall; done for inspection of abdominal organs, particularly the ovaries, uterine tubes and for laparoscopic surgery
  222. liver biopsy
    removal of tissue from the liver for pathologic examination
  223. percutaneous liver biopsy
    removal of liver tissue by using a needle to puncture the skin overlying the liver
  224. excretion
    process of eliminating wastes from the body
  225. urination
    the act of voiding
  226. urology
    the branch of medicine concerned with the urinary tracts of both genders, specialist is urologist
  227. albumin/o
  228. -ation
  229. -esis
    action, process, or result of
  230. glycos/o
  231. olig/o
    few, scanty
  232. ur/o
    urine or urinary tract
  233. urin/o
  234. -uria
    urine or urination
  235. cyst/o
    bladder (sometimes cyst or sac)
  236. glomerul/o
    glomerulus  (filtering structure of the kidney)
  237. nephr/o, ren/o
  238. pyel/o
    renal pelvis (reservoir in the kidney that collects urine)
  239. ureter/o
  240. urethr/o
  241. renal artery
    brings blood away from the kidney
  242. renal vein
    brings blood to the kidney
  243. glomerulus
    cluster of blood vessels surrounded by a structure called a Bowman's capsule
  244. Bowman capsule
    surrounds the glomerulus- (a cluster of blood vessels)
  245. glomerular filtration
    filtering of the blood; initial process in the formation of urine; Glomerulus allows water, salts and wastes except blood and proteins to pass through its thin walls
  246. tubular reabsorption
    reabsorption of some substances; Bowman's capsule collects substances that filter through glomerulus and pass them through tubules, reabsorbing most of the water and sugar into blood vessels to re-use and the remaining substances turn it into urine
  247. Tubular secretion
    secretion of substances from the bloodstream into the renal tubule that become urine
  248. UA, U/A
    Urinalysis, a complete urinalysis includes physical, chemical and microscopic examinations performed in the clinical laboratory
  249. glycosuria
    the presence of sugar in the urine
  250. proteinuria
    the presence of protein in the urine
  251. hematuria
    the presence of blood in the urine
  252. pyuria
    the presence of pus in the urine
  253. UTI
    urinary tract infection; presence of many bacteria in the urine
  254. renal angiography
    radiographic study to assess the arterial blood supply to the kidneys
  255. stenosis
    constriction or narrowing of an artery
  256. nephrosis
    degenerative changes to the kidneys but no inflammation
  257. polycystic kidney disease
    hereditary disorder characterized by hundreds of fluid-filled cysts throughout both kidneys
  258. polyp
    tumor found on a mucosal surface
  259. renal cell carcinoma
    a malignant neoplasm of the kidney; kidney cancer
  260. renal failure
    failure of the kidney to perform its essential functions
  261. renal insufficiency
    reduced ability of the kidney to perform its essential functions
  262. urinary incontinence
    inability to hold urine in the bladder
  263. urethral catheterization
    an indwelling catheter (held securely in place with a balloon tip filled with water) left in place for a longer period for urinary diversion
  264. percutaneous nephostomy
    tube inserted temporarily into the renal pelvis when complete obstruction of the ureter is present through an opening in the overlaying skin into the renal pelvis
  265. diuretic
    an agent that causes increased urination; common substances are tea, coffee, alcohol and water
  266. nephrectomy
    surgical removal of a kidney
  267. lithotripsy
    crushing of a stone or calculi using high energy shock waves or a laser
  268. nephroscope
    fiberoptic instrument inserted through the skin
  269. nephropexy
    surgical attachment of a prolapsed (sagging) kidney
  270. ureteroplasty
    surgical repair of a ureter
  271. BE
    Barium enema (x-ray test)
  272. BM
    bowel movement
  273. GI / UGI
    gastrointestinal / upper gastrointestinal
  274. IBD / IBS
    inflammatory bowel distress / syndrome
  275. HAV
    hepatitis A virus
  276. HBV
    hepatitis B virus
  277. NG tube
    nasogastric tube
  278. N & V
    nausea and vomiting
  279. PP, pp
    after meals
  280. US
  281. GRD
    Gastrointestinal Reflux Disease
  282. ARF
    Acute Renal Failure
  283. BPH
    Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
  284. BUN
    blood, urea, nitrogen (lab test)
  285. CRF
    chronic renal failure
  286. cysto
    cystoscopic examination
  287. IVP
    intravenous pyelogram (lab test)