Learning Psych - reinforcements/punishment

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Learning Psych - reinforcements/punishment
2013-06-10 20:58:24

Notes for learning test
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  1. Disadvantages of Punishment (4)
    • doesn't extinguish undesired behaviour, just suppresses it and will continue when punishment is removed
    • P labels behaviour unacceptable but doesn't develop acceptable behaviours
    • Person punished feels hostile towards punisher, may need to retaliate/avoid punisher
    • Punishment leads to aggression, physical punishment becomes model of agressive behaviour by doing it to solve problems
  2. Making punishment more effective (5)
    • Done during misbehaviour or straight after - interrupting is best
    • Minimum severity, but equal to behaviour
    • Applied consistently 
    • Presented with reinforcement to show good behaviour
    • Involving loss of privileges rather than physical
  3. Fixed ratio (4)
    • number of reinforces received depends on response rate
    • Very high response rate
    • higher the ratio, greater resistance to extinction
    • brief pause after reinforcement when ratio is very high
  4. Variable ratio (4)
    • reinforcer given after varying number of non-reinforced responses
    • Most resistance to extinction
    • highest response rate
    • constant response pattern, no pauses
  5. Fixed interval (4)
    • Specific period of time must pass before reinforced
    • lowest response rate
    • long pause after reinforcement followed by gradual acceleration 
    • greater interval, greater resistance to extinction
  6. Variable interval (4)
    • Reinforcer given after first correct response following a varied time of non-reinforced responses based on average time
    • Moderate response rate
    • Stable response rate
    • more resistance to extinction than FI with same average interval
  7. Biological factors of learning
    biological predispositions and brain structures and neurochemistry
  8. Basic Process factors of learning
    • universal psychological processes eg those associated with CC and OC
    • Most learning associated with BP
  9. Person factors of learning
    Combo of influences and experiences make people approach learning differently, interests in some learning tasks/reserves of prior learning
  10. Socio-cultural factors of learning
    influences from 'interpersonal  interactions eg relationships, cultural norms, social expectations
  11. Learning is a change at the _______ that links _________
    • synapses
    • Neurons
  12. Repeated experience makes ________ release _______ more freely. _______ becomes sensitive and easily stimulated
    • pre-synaptic neuron
    • neuro-transmitters 
    • post-synaptic
  13. ______ is central to acquisition and ______ of learning. Damaged _______ = _________
    • Hippocampus 
    • consolidation
    • hippocampus
    • unable to learn new information
  14. What is habituation?
    • The process of getting used to something.
    • The tendency to have a decreased response to a stimulus
    • eg getting used to a bright coloured wall
  15. Implicit/latent learning (3)
    • happens when we are not aware of the learning process
    • much of the social learning we do is latent learning
    • eg have learnt song lyrics without trying
  16. Learning through insight
    • the spontaneous combination of a number of isolated experiences to produce a new behaviour to gain desired result
    • eg humans putting known info and past experiences together to solve a problem/achieve a goal
  17. What is high order conditioning?
    • When two conditioned stimuli are presented together, pos/neg from run is transferred to the other
    • eg politician with sports star
  18. Explain the difference between reinforcement and punishment (sentence)
    Reinforcement strengthens the tendency to perform a behaviour, punishment weakens the tendency to perform a behaviour
  19. Define 'preparedness'
    a species-specific predisposition to be conditioned in certain ways not others