Parasitology - Lecture

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Parasitology - Lecture
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2014-06-10 12:12:24
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Parasitiology Vet Tech Lecture
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Parasitology Lecture
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  1. ________ – generally a smaller organism that lives on or inside and at the expense of a larger animal. Example fleas
    Parasite
  2. Host expense is dependent on:
    • a) Number of parasites can cause anemia
    • b) Kind and degree of injury that they inflict – sucking blood is possibly the worst injury. Lice are not that bad, they are mostly an irritant.
    • c) Vigor or nourishment of the host. Type of nourishment – eating canine maintenance or out of trash can determine how effect the host is.
  3. ________ – a biological association in which one animal is transported by another animal. Example: flea on dog or cattle egret on the back of cow in field
    Phoresis
  4. ___________ – two organisms which live together, neither bearing a parasitic relation to the other, but one or both members deriving benefit.
    Communalism
  5. ________ – two organisms living together with a mutual advantageous association of two or more organisms. Example: cattle egret cow is getting the bugs on its back eaten by the cattle egret – egrets getting lunch
    Mutualism
  6. Another term in which two are working together is ________ relationship. _______ is when one is helping the other. Good example when 2 drugs work together to either extend the length of their effect or increase the amount of kill that they have, as opposed to antagonistic drugs
    symbiotic; Symbiosis
  7. _________ – infestation with parasites
    Parasitism
  8. ___________ – a condition in which parasites of different species parasitize a single host. Example: fleas and hookworms – internal and external parasites
    Multiple parasitism
  9. _____________ – excessive parasitization by the same species
    Superparasitism
  10. __________ means a disease that can be passed from animal to man and from man to animal.
    Zoonosis
  11. Nickname for:
    Ascariasis: 
    Ancylostomiasis: 
    Trichuriasis: 
    • Roundworms
    • Hookworms
    • Whip worms
  12. Zoonotic parasites are
    • Ascariasis
    • Ancylostomiasis
    • Trichuriasis - less common
  13. Hookworm infection under the skin
    Cutaneous Larval Migrans (CLM)
  14. CLM in humans. Term does not apply to animals only to man
    Creeping eruption
  15. Ascarids in humans. Migrating within the organs of the body.
    Visceral Larval Migrans (VLM)
  16. ______ refers to worms. Generally refers to ascarids, ancylostoma, trichuris – internal parasites
    Metazoan
  17. _________ – passage of parasite via milk. Sometimes called _________.
    • Transmammary 
    • galactogenic transfer
  18. ______ – passage of parasite via placenta
    Synonyms:
    • InUtero
    • intrauterine, transovarian
  19. ______ - stage in development of egg post cell
    Morula
  20. _________ – stage after morula
    Vermiform embryo
  21. _______ – reduction in rbc # and/or hemoglobin
    Anemia
  22. ________ – parasite is sucking blood out of the dog faster than the dog can replace the blood. Treat – kill parasite and dog replaces the RBCs
    Clinical anemia
  23. ________ - The body is not replacing the RBCs at the rate they are being destroyed or dying from longevity. Blood cells only last 110 days, but the bone marrow can’t replace them fast enough to equal the amount that is being destroyed
    Aplastic anemia
  24. ______ – normal size of rbc cell
    ______ – variety of shapes of cells
    _________ – normal color of rbc (pink)
    _____________ – not enough hemoglobin – white in color
    __________ – is almost red in color
    • Normocytic
    • Anisocytosis
    • Normochromic
    • Hypochromic or microchromic
    • Hyperchromic or macrochromic
  25. In an anemic animal what type of cells would you see? Why?
    • Microcytic, hypochromic.
    • Reason that it is smaller is that it is produced so fast that it doesn’t have normal stage of development, its undernourished and it doesn’t have enough hemoglobin (iron & protein in the diet) to fill up the oxygen and carbon dioxide to carry carbons
  26. __________ – requires intermediate host (vector) generally an arthropod. Example Heartworms
    Indirect Life Cycle
  27. _________ – no intermediate host needed. Example –transmission via urine, vomit – roundworms (ascarids) involve eating off the grass and picking up stage 2 no vector
    Direct Life Cycle
  28. ___________ – the brand or trade name for a drug. Example: Tylenol or Pepto Bismol
    _______ – the generic name for a drug. Example: Acetaminophen or Bismuth
    _________ – the organic formula for the drug with carbon, hydroxide, oxygen, and covalent bonds attached
    • Proprietary Name
    • Non-proprietary Name
    • Chemical Name
  29. Fecal Scoring
    Score __ - Feces is very hard and dry. Maybe expelled as individual pellets. Usually indicates dehydration in animal
    Score 1
  30. Fecal Scoring
    Score __ – firm, but not hard. Segmented appearance but pliable
    Score 2
  31. Fecal Scoring
    Score __ – log like. Little to no segmentation.
    Score 3
  32. Fecal Scoring
    Score __ – very moist but distinct log shape. Leaves oily residue when picked up.
    Score 4
  33. Fecal Scoring
    Score __ – very moist and has distinct shape like 4 but is present in piles rather than as distinct logs like 4.
    Score 5
  34. Fecal Scoring
    Score __ – has texture but no distinct shape. Occurs in piles or spots.
    Score 6
  35. Fecal Scoring
    Score __ – watery, no texture at all. Flat and occurs in puddles
    Score 7
  36. Of all the parasites that will pass and be seen in the stool of the dog and cat, which two will they commonly see with the unaided eye?
    Exception?
    • Ascarids (Rounds) – looks like 17 cm spaghetti
    • Cestodes (Tapes) – looks like 2 cm grains of rice
    • Exception is aquatic tapeworms –they do not look like a grain of rice, they come out in a ribbon, but loos like fettuccine - flat spaghetti. You can see them segmented, they are normally dead and they are yellow in color.
    • Mesocestoides (North TX),
    • Dipylidium caninum (flea or lice),
    • Taenia (intermediate host is rodent or rabbit)
  37. Heartworm transmission in certain areas has allowed it to spread throughout the US since its first appearance in
    Hennepin County, Minnesota, in 1937.
  38. CAPC = ___________ is an organization designed to foster animal and human health while preserving the human-animal bond through recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control of parasitic infections.
    Companion Animal Parasite Council
  39. 6 Basic CAPC Recommendations
    • 1. Bring dog and cats in for annual physical
    • 2. Place dogs and cats on preventive flea and tick products as soon after birth as possible.
    • examinations.
    • 3. Treat dogs and cats year-round with broad-spectrum heartworm anthelmintics that have activity against parasites with zoonotic
    • 4. Provide pets with cooked food and fresh, portable water.
    • potential.
    • 5. Retest the heartworm status of dogs annually; test cats before placing them on preventatives and thereafter as indicated by history and physical findings.
    • 6. Conduct fecal examinations in adult pets once or twice a year.
  40. List 7 tests for intestinal parasites - which is the best?
    • 1. Necropsy – to test the intestinal tract. Gives the most thorough diagnose of intestinal/circulatory parasites. Best option
    • 2. Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR) – Used for intestinal & blood parasites. Also used in the diagnosing viral infections like rabies without taking off head. Generally must be submitted to TVML, IDEXX or ANTEX
    • 3. Enzyme Link Immune Sorbent Assay Test (ELISA) – Use for heartworm test and hookworm test for migrating larvae
    • 4. Immunofluorescence normally done by TVMD
    • 5. Centrifuge flotation (99% effective). Gold standard in private practice.
    • 6. Simple floatation (84%)
    • 7. Direct Smear (17%) Multiple parasitism or Superparasitism will generally show up on this smear. In 1970s used this test to diagnose heartworms to see adult microfilaria.
  41. Most Commonly Used test in clinics for intestinal parasites are (list effectiveness)
    • Centrifuge floatation (99% effective)
    • Simple floatation (84% effective)
    • Direct smear (17% effective)
  42. 4 common parasites found in private practice are
    Ascarids, Ancylostoma, Trichuris and tapeworms. (3 nematodes and 1 cestode)
  43. Most tapeworms are diagnosed in the clinic by
    observing the bowel movement and the segments of the tapeworms in the bowel movement.
  44. At Auburn an ELISA test has been developed specifically for the tapes by detecting the _____ from the segments in the feces. It has been named “_________” (__% effective blood test). It is being made available to outpatient clinics now. The test detects proteins specifically from tapeworms.
    • proteins 
    • Sandwich ELISA; 70%
  45. ELISA prevalence of tapeworm in shelter dogs is ____%
    ELISA prevalence of tapeworm in privately owned dogs is ___%
    • 58.5%
    • 45.5%
  46. Specific gravity – Minimal effective concentrations
    Ascarids (rounds) & Ancylostoma (hooks) = __
    Trichuris vulpis (whips) = ___ 
    Taenia (tape) = ____
    Physaloptera (stomach whips) = ____
    • 1.06 
    • 1.15
    • 1.23
    • 1.24
  47. _______ means it is a very concentrated solution
    Hypertonic
  48. ______ is the floatation medium most commonly used, however ________ is very effective as well
    • Zinc sulfate 
    • sodium nitrate
  49. ______ are most common worms in veterinary medicine and also as a parasite in human medicine throughout the world. Keep in mind ________ is the Ascarid most common parasite found in man worldwide
    • Nematodes
    • Ascaris lumbricoides
  50. The word zoonotic and term Public Health are used interchangeably as we discuss some of the transmissible disease; however to be zoonotic the transmission must be susceptible to both the animal and man. If it doesn’t affect the animal and is transferred to man then it is either a _______________.
    reservoir or an intermediate host
  51. ______ people in the U.S. are infected with larvae of Toxocara genus from dogs and cats. _______children alone are affected annually by ascarids transmitted by dogs and cats.
    ____of whom lose their vision as a result – called ocular larvae migrans.
    A study conducted by ophthalmologist reported migrating Toxocara larvae caused
    ___% cases of retinal disease in children
    • 15 million
    • 10 thousand
    • 750 
    • 37%
  52. Majority of all puppies born in U.S. are infected with Toxocara canis and a high percentage with Ancylostoma caninum because they are transmitted _____ and _________; these puppies can begin to shed eggs as young as ____ weeks of age
    • in utero; transmammary 
    • 2-3
  53. Baylisascaris procyonis 
    Definitive host ________, but can infect dogs, is a source of illness in people. 
    Picked up ______.
    Raccoons poop and pee in one area, called a ______. 
    • raccoons
    • orally
    • latrine
  54. Hookworms in man are a well-known cause of ___________. And recently Ancylostoma caninum has been recognized to be the cause in man of ____________. 
    • cutaneous larvae migrans (CLM)
    • chronic enteritis
  55. 2 of your more common zoonotic diseases associated with metazoan parasites or metazoan etiologies
    cutaneous larvae migrans (CLM) & visceral larvae migrans
  56. List 9 People susceptible to Zoonosis
    • Young children
    • People in household with dogs and cats
    • People who are careless about sanitation or hygiene
    • People who work in close contact with animals. Example people who train animals.
    • People who work in contaminated environments
    • People with compromised immune systems
    • Pet owners who do not randomly deworm their animals. It has become less of a problem with once a month spot ons
    • Elderly people
    • Veterinary professionals
  57. Male nematodes are smaller than female of their species. Male nematodes caudal ends are often equipped with a cuticular expansion called a _________ for
    grasping the female.
    copulatory bursa
  58. Female nematodes – reproductive system consists of ____________ connected to a _____________. Females are generally bigger and more parasitic (suck more blood)
    • 2 ovaries, oviducts and uteri
    • single vagina and vulva
  59. _____________ lays eggs that hatch
    Oviparous
  60. _____________ lays live larvae
    Viviparous
  61. List 5 Transmission methods for Ancylostoma infection?
    • 1. Skin penetration –infective stage (3rd) PP 14
    • 2. Oral infection –prepatent period 14 days
    • 3. Transmammary –A. caninum only to date.
    • 4. Intrauterine –A. caninum only to date.
    • 5. Mammalian parentenic host. Another way to say is accidental host. No molting takes place in a parentenic host – it just picks it up.
  62. Most common way puppy will get hookworms is 
    transmammary and interuterine
  63. The clinical picture in hookworm disease is dependent on the:
    • 1. Virulence of the species – Ancylostoma caninum is most virulent
    • 2. Degree of exposure to infected larvae
    • 3. The degree of resistance of the host.
  64. Symptoms of Ancylostoma
    Weakness, unfitness, anemia, diarrhea, bloody or tarry stools, anorexia, depression and death may occur
  65. Hookworm
    Phylum - 
    Order –
    Family –
    Genus –
    • Nematoda
    • Strongylida
    • Ancylostomatidae
    • Ancylostoma
  66. Hookworms do not suck blood, they suck the _______. At any one time it can be attached to the intestines, it can be migrating through the body, not just the liver and lungs, migrating to a muscle or it can be encysted in the tissue. Encysted in the tissue is called ____________.
    • mucosa 
    • larvae leak syndrome
  67. _______ can evoke an eruption of encysted larvae. Some people feel that the encysted parasites like hookworm larvae can be affected with microfilaria doses of ____________.
    • Hormones
    • Ivermectin ¼ mL p/40lbs orally
  68. Life Cycle of Hooks is _______ life cycle
    direct
  69. Ascarid and Ancylostoma can be transmitted
    transmammary and transovarian.
  70. 8 Treatments of Ancylostoma caninum
    • Panacur
    • Drontal Plus
    • Intercepter
    • Sentinel
    • Heartgard Plus
    • Iverhart Plus
    • Proheart 6
    • Pyrantel Pamoate
  71. Control of Ancylostoma caninum
    • Discretionary deworming
    • routine preventives given monthly
    • preventing fecal contamination of lawn
  72. Clinical Signs of Ancylostomiasis
    Inhabit ___________ – ______ feces.
    Other parasite that give this type stool it is a stomach worm called __________
    Egg to 3rd Stage Larvae in _____ days –optimal time for infection
    • small intestines only
    • dark tarry
    • Physaloptera 
    • 5 to 7
  73. Clinical Picture: (ancylostomiasis)
    • 1.  Far more devastating in the puppy or kitten
    • 2.  Dark tarry stool diarrhea
    • 3.  Pale mucus membranes with anemia. This is really a symptom
    • 4.  Microcytic and Hypochromic
    • 5.  Playing today, motionless tomorrow, dead 3rd day.
    • 6.  Adults NOT seen in feces, too small - Only eggs on microscopic identification. This is the primary means of diagnosing
  74. 3 forms of diagnosing anycylostomiasis
    • Differential - list of things that it could be
    • Tentative - most likely what it is
    • Diagnosis - see the parasite
  75. ____________ is the most common and most virulent of all the hookworms seen in North America
    Ancylostoma caninum
  76. 2 protozoans that are most common
    Isospora felis and Isospora canis.
  77. Life Cycle of A. caninum
    • 1. Dog consumes the 3rd stage larvae or the 3rd stage larvae penetrates the skin of animal.
    • 2. Larvae mature in small intestines and feed
    • 3. Mature worms copulate and start to produce egg a. two weeks after consumption of 3rd stage they can mature to the Stage 5 larvae and start to reproduce OR b. four weeks after skin penetration of 3rd stage can mature and start to reproduce
    • 4. Eggs are passed in feces & hatch in 2 – 8 days.
    • Life cycle continues repeating 1, 2, 3, and 4 above.
  78. Once the 3rd stage larvae is consumed and passes to the small intestines, one of two avenues may be taken by the A. caninum larvae:
    • 1.    Larvae may mature to adult
    • 2.    Larvae may penetrate the intestine wall and migrate through the tissues and encyst within the skeletal muscles or gut wall becoming dormant.
  79. U. stenocephala can produce severe anemia and death within 
    12 days after birth
  80. _________ and ____________ can both penetrate the skin resulting in Cutaneous Larval Migrans. It is considered in most circles that the name CLM refers only to the penetration of __________ however.
    • Ancylostoma caninum; A. braziliense
    • A. braziliense
  81. If you do an immediate floatation (within hours) and you see larvae, it is probably going to be __________ or __________.
    On feces 4-5 days old, and you see larvae it is probably going to be _________.
    • Strongyloides (blood in feces) 
    • lungworm (coughing)
    • Ancylostoma
  82. Chemotherapy drugs for hooks - Among the currently most common are:
    List Propietary & non-proprietary name
    • Pyrantel pamoate (Proprietary name: Nemex), 
    • Pyrantel pamoate/praziquantel (Drontal)
    • fenbendazole (Panacur)
    • diclorvos (Task)
    • milbemycin oxime & lufenuron (Interceptor/Sentinel)
    • selamectin (Revolution)
    • ivermectin/pyrantel pamoate (Heartgard Plus)
    • oxibendazole/diethylcarbamazine (Filaribits Plus)
  83. How do you control Hooks – Control of ascarids is basically the same thing.
    • 1. Feces should be removed regularly from earth runs and not be left on the ground for more than 24 hours.
    • 2. Soil can be periodically treated with salt 160g/liter boiling water or sodium borate 14 kg/sq meter.
    • 3. Concrete runs should be trialed smoothly and runs should be hosed and washed well.
    • 4. Bitch should be de-wormed prior to breeding.
  84. 2nd most common Nematode Parasite of Dogs and Cats
    • Ascariasis(“Roundworms”)
    • Toxocara canis
    • Toxocara cati / mystax
    • Toxascaris leonina
  85. Roundworms
    Phylum – 
    Order –
    Family – 
    Genus –
    • Nematoda
    • Ascaridae
    • Ascaridoidea
    • Toxocara, Toxascaris, Physaloptera, Baylisascaris
  86. __________ and _________ (like Ancylostoma caninum) are the most pathogenic of the roundworms
    • Toxocara canis
    • Toxocara cati
  87. Transmission of Ascarids is by:
    • 1. Ingestion –2nd stage is infective stage.
    • 2. Inutero (transplacental) - primary for the Ascarids
    • 3. Transmammary – (Transplacental is )
    • 4. Mammalian Parentenic Host
  88. What happens if they eat the 1st Stage larvae (ascarids)?
    they wind up in the lungs and they are going to be coughed up from the trachea through the pharynx, swallowed and go back to the stomach all in stage 2, once they hit the stomach the 2nd time then they will molt to 3, 4, & 5 in the intestines and start reproducing. This is called Transtracheal migration
  89. Transtracheal migration this is common for every ascarid in every species. In the pig, the coughing brought on by the migration is called ________.
    thumps
  90. _____ means that it has to go through an intermediate host.
    _____ means that it does not have go through an intermediate host.
    If it is picked up by another animal and eaten by dog, then that animal that was eaten is called a ________ host.
    Intermediate host implies ________. Paratenic host implies ____________.
    • Indirect 
    • Direct
    • paratenic 
    • biological vector
    • mechanical host
  91. Baylisascaris procyonis is dangerous because in animals and in man because it 
    invades the CNS 
  92. Toxocara canis and T. cati follow what is called a __________ Also sometimes called __________. This occurs in any ascarid
    Tracheal Migration Route; transtracheal migrations
  93. Patterns of migration of ascarids
    • 1. Dog consumes second stage larvae.
    • 2. Larvae penetrates the stomach and enters the hepatic portal circulation.
    • 3. Larvae migrates through the liver parenchyma. 
    • 4. Larvae enters the posterior vena cava then goes to the right auricle, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonic valve, pulmonary artery, and goes to the lungs.
    • 5. Larvae will migrate up the trachea to the pharynx switches tubes and goes from the trachea to the esophagus where they are swallowed where it goes back to the stomach as Stage 2.
    • 6. Following a molt in the stomach to stage 3, the parasite goes to the small intestine to molt twice and reproduce.
  94. Toxocara canis is the largest ascarid in dogs living in the _________ and are long white and often straight in contrast to the worms of Physaloptera rara which lives in the ___________ and is continuous ________ throughout its life
    • small intestines
    • stomach 
    • C shaped 
  95. Ascarid parasite can also be passed _______ from the bitch to the pups by the ___ stage larvae. Infected pups can have the ___ stage larvae in their lungs when born, and a molt from ________ stage can occur during the first week of life. The 4th stage are then present in the ______ at ____ after birth.
    • inutero 
    • 2nd
    • 3rd 
    • 3rd to 4th 
    • intestinal tract
    • 3 days
  96. Prepatent period for ascarids is ______.
    21 days
  97. _________ is the stage in which we can do a fecal and see the passage of eggs from the intestines.
    Prepatent period
  98. Life Cycle for Ascarids
    • 1. Dog or cat ingest the eggs, 2nd stage or paratenic host
    • 2. Egg will hatch in stomach and molt to 2nd stage.
    • 3. 2nd stage larvae invade the bowel, move to the liver, and go to the lungs via the posterior (caudal) vena cava.
    • 4. Larvae enter alveoli, coughed up into trachea & mouth, are swallowed and mature in the small intestine
    • 5. When bitch is pregnant (hormones), larvae are activated to migrate to placenta and into lungs of pups or to the mammary glands where they are shed in the milk.
  99. Larvae of both Ascarids and Ancylostoma that do not follow the normal routes of migration and as a result they encyst in the muscles in a dormant state. If they go to the muscle it is termed _________ is a term for this state of arrested development in the muscles.
    Hypobiosis
  100. What are the 3 forms of both the Ascarid and Ancylostoma in the animal’s body, that are not in the egg form.
    • 1. Adult –in the intestines mostly
    • 2. Visceral migrating larvae
    • 3. The encysted larval form
  101. Primary means of Transmission
    1. Ascarids
    2. Ancylostoma
    Remember – this is the primary both parasites have dual transmissions.
    • Transplacental, transovarial or in-utero
    • Transmammary or Galactogenic
  102. 2 Signs of Ascarid Infections in prenatal infected pups
    • a.    abdominal cramps
    • b.    intussusception with constipation/obstipation and dyschezia
  103. 4 Signs of Ascarid Infections in Adults
    • a. gastrointestinal upset (diarrhea and vomiting)
    • b. respiratory disorders due to tracheal migration
    • c. "pot belled” appearance and emaciation (hook bone and pin bone are showing)
    • d. rough and dull hair coat
  104. _______ – these are basically physiological changes that you can observe with the naked eye or hear. Examples vomiting, coughing, diarrhea, dyspnea, constipation etc
    _______ – are the result of running test in clinical laboratory and observing changes from normal. Examples Packed cell volume, complete blood count, neutrophilia etc
    • Symptom
    • Clinical Signs
  105. Control measures of ascarids (like ancylostomiasis) include:
    • 1. Bitch should be screened for parasites prior to breeding and dewormed twice prior to breeding if positive. May want to use Ivermectin.
    • 2. Puppies should be reared in an enclosed environment with multi-hour disposal of feces from bitch and puppies. Examples – concrete runs that are trialed off-level and treating with polyurethane
    • 3. Screen puppies at 4 and 8 weeks for all parasites.
  106. Chemotherapy (5) – Almost all of the compounds we work with as antihelmintics (intestinal parasite killers) will kill both ascardis and Ancylostomas.
    • Drontal Plus – febantel/praziquantel (for cestodes)/pyrantel pamoate (for ascarids and hooks) (most expensive in the market)
    • Drontal - praziquantel/pyrantel pamoate
    • Panacur – Fenbendazole
    • Task – dichlorvos a
    • Nemex/StrongidT - pyrantel pamoate
  107. List 8 Benzindazoles
    • Parabendazole
    • Albendazole
    • Cambendazole – Camvet (proprietary name)
    • Thiabendazole – Omnizole 
    • Fenbendazole – Panacur – 
    • Mebandazole – Telmin – 
    • Oxifendazole 
    • Oxibendazole
  108. If the Visceral Larvae Migrans is ocular it is called 
    Ocular Larva Migrans (OLM).
  109. Visceral Larval Migrans (including OLM) – cause is _______ and _________. Remember _______ is NOT a visceral migrator
    • Toxocara canis
    • Toxocara cati (mystax)
    • Toxascaris leonina
  110. Cutaneous Larval Migrans – cause in humans by ________ and ________ but most authorities and text will list only _____ causing cutaneous larval migrans in zoonotic cases. Nickname .
    • Ancylostoma brazilienses
    • A. caninum
    • A. brazilienses
    • “Creeping Eruption” (only used for humans)
  111. Toxocara mystax (T. cati) – 3 similarities to Toxocara canis
    • 1. Toxocara mystax is the common ascarid to cats like T. canis is to the dog. 
    • 2. Transtracheal migration is exactly the same as in T. canis.
    • 3. Larval leak syndrome does occur with cats and T. cati.
  112. Toxocara mystax (T. cati) – difference to Toxocara canis
    Transplacental route of infection does not occur with T. cati. Transmammary is the route in cats. Transmammary does occur with Toxocara canis.
  113. Toxascaris leonina does not have visceral migration, but follows a mucosal migration with the 2nd and 3rd molts occurring in the ______ and the 4th stage entering the ________ to mature.
    Inside the intestine to outside= 
    Prepatent period is _______.
    • mucosa wall
    • lumen of the gut 
    • Inside the intestine to outside= Mucosa, submucosa, muscle and serosa.
    • 10 weeks
  114. Why do we only deworm for T. leonina once?
    Because they don’t participate in Visceral Larval Migrans - they do NOT leave the intestines.
  115. Two mechanisms of transmission of Toxascaris leonina parasite:
    • 1. Ingestion of the eggs (most common method)
    • 2. Ingestion of the paratenic host
  116. Toxascaris leonina 
    Signs:
    minimal due to the lack of pathogenicity with no transplacental and no transmammary transmission; therefore the animal is not effected until near adulthood.
  117. Life Cycle of Toxascaris leonina
    ingestion of eggs, hatch, molt, and mature to adult all within the intestinal tract. 
  118. ___________ is the most pathogenic zoonosis (next to Strongyloides) because its larvae continues to grow as they migrate penetrating the CNS causing irreparable damage or even death.
    Baylisascaris procyonis
  119. B. procyonis is not a hookworm but is a common roundworm of the raccoon. Eggs are shed ____ for development, infection and intermediate host (___, ____ or ____) and the ____ consumes parenteric host. 
    Can undergo ______ migration just like other ascarids with exception of T. leonina. 
    • 2-4 weeks 
    • rodent; lizard; bird
    • dog 
    • transtracheal
  120. __________ - 3rd Most Common Nematode Nickname – ________
    • Trichuriasis
    • “Whipworms”
  121. Name the Whipworms of
    1. _______________ – dog
    2. _______________ – cat
    3. _______________ – cat
    4. _______________ – man, pig, & monkeys 
    • Trichuris vulpis
    • Trichuris campanula
    • Trichuris serrate
    • Trichuris trichura
  122. The irritation to the cecum produces ______.
    Trichuris species will cause _____blood in the feces where Ancylostoma causes ____ stool.
    Trichuris participated in no __________
    All Trichuris eggs, on flotation, are usually mistaken for _________ genus or bladder eggs since they are both operculated.
    • “flank sucking”
    • bright red; dark tarry
    • transtracheal migration
    • Eucoleus
  123. Prepatent period for Trichuris is ______ from the time the animal consumes the egg.
    3 months
  124. Life Cycle of Trichuris
    • 1. Eggs are consumed directly 
    • 2. Eggs hatch and the larval development occurs in either the duodenum or jejunal walls (larvae incubate 1 mo. in egg)
    • 3. Adults then move to the cecum where they mature and reproduce in approximately 11 weeks after ingestion of the egg. Once mature and start to reproduce – start seeing eggs in feces.
  125. Symptoms of Trichuris Cecum Inhabitant
    • 1. Weight loss
    • 2. Bright blood in the feces (small amount)
    • 3. Anemia – clinical sign
    • 4. Abdominal pain
    • 5. Flatulence
    • 6. Flank Sucking 
  126. Fecal flotations are used to diagnose trichuris like all the ascarids and ancylostoma; however, trichuris eggs are ______and thus require a flotation medium with a specific gravity of at least _____ in order to get the eggs to float to the top.
    ______ is the choice if we suspect trichuris
    • heavier
    • 1.145 
    • Zinc sulfate
  127. Treatment of Trichuris
    • Fenbendazole (Panacur) is still the drug of choice for at least three days in a row of treatment.
    • However Drontal Plus with febantel is supposed to take care of Trichuris. 
  128. Taxonomy Strongyloides
    Phylum: 
    Order: 
    Family:
    • Phylum: Nematoda
    • Order: Rhabditida
    • Family: Rhabdiasoidea
  129. Strongyloides live in the mucosa of the anterior half of the ________ in dogs, cats, foxes and man. They also cause the production of ________. Why?
    • small intestine
    • bright red blood
    • Because it passes through the digestion rapidly and the blood doesn’t have time to mix with the feces.
  130. List the 3 types of Strongyloides in order of most pathogenic to least pathogenic.
    • Asexual pathogenic female
    • Sexual female and
    • Sexual Male
  131. Intestinal Threadworms
    _____________ in cow,
    _____________ in horse
    _________ in the dog.
    _________ in the cat
    • Strongyloides papillosus
    • Strongyloides westeri
    • Strongyloides stercoralis
    • Strongyloides tumefaciens
  132. Micronema species are part of the ____________ family like the Genus Strongyloides and are common in horses invading the CNS on occasion. 
    Rhabdiasoidea 
  133. Strongyloides live in the anterior half of the small intestines but produce bright blood due to the 
    rapid movement through the intestines
  134. Strongyloides stercoralis - This rhabditiform larvae was diagnosed using the _______ also called the _____________. Larvae were found in 5 of the 7 puppies in this litter using this technique.
    • Baermann technique
    • Wisconsin Lungworm technique
  135. Which parasites produce bright red stool?
    Trichuris, Strongyloides
  136. Which parasites produce dark tarry stool?
    Ancylostoma, Physaloptera
  137. Which parasites exit the host as a larvae?
    Strongyloides, lungworms
  138. Which parasites inhabit the:
    SI
    Cecum
    • SI – T. canis, T.cati, T. leonina, A. caninum, A. tubaeformae, U. stenocephala, Strongyloides stercoralis
    • Cecum – Trichuris
  139. Which parasites have visceral migration in their life cycle?
    • Toxocara canis
    • Toxocara cati/mystax
  140. Which parasites have only mucosal migration in their life cycle
    Toxascaris leonina
  141. Which parasites are incriminated as primary zoonotic (public health) problems?
    • Ancylostoma caninum (cutaneous larvae migrans),
    • Ancylostoma braziliensis
  142. Cutaneous larvae migrans in humans
    Ancylostoma brazilienses
  143. Which parasites can penetrate the skin?
    • Ancylostoma
    • Strongyloides
  144. Which parasites can use a direct life cycle and indirect life cycle?
    Eucoleus aerophila
  145. Which parasite 1st stage larvae becomes infective?
    • Filaroides osleri
    • Filaroides hirthi
  146. Lungworms:
    Order – 
    Family - 
    Genus -
    • Order – Trichinellida              
    • Family - Trichinelloidea
    • Genus -Eucoleus, Aelurostrongylus, Filaroides (Paragonimus is a Trematode - a fluke)
  147. Eucoleus aerophila “the fox lungworm” is the lungworm of the dog and fox. The can be oviparous, pass larvae, use a direct life cycle or an indirect life cycle utilizing an earthworm referred to as a ___________
    facultative intermediate host 
  148. Other Capillaria:
    _____________ = crop worm poultry     
    ______= inflammation of mucosa in ducks.
    The eggs of Eucoleus are _____ and resemble Trichuris
    • Eucoleus annulata
    • E. contorta
    • bipolar 
  149. _________ is the lung worm of the cat primarily. Their life cycle is ______living in ______________
    • Aelurostrongylus abstrusus
    • indirect 
    • molluscs (snail - most common mollusk),
  150. Other Lungworms
    __________ – not a nematode but a trematode, must be differentiated here as it has a natural host in the _____, although we see it most commonly in the south and in Texas as a parasite of the dog.
    ______eggs
    • Paragonimus kellicotti
    • mink
    • Unipolar
  151. Review Intermediate Host
    ___________– earthworm – but it doesn’t have to have host – could be both
    __________– molluscs (could be snail)
    __________– crayfish
    __________– do not require intermediate host - if they did it would be a snail
    • Eucoleus 
    • Aelurostrongylus 
    • Paragonimus
    • Filaroides 
  152. ___________ – stomach worm of cats
    ___________ – stomach worm of dogs
    • Physaloptera praeputialis
    • Physaloptera rara
  153. Life Cycle of Physaloptera - Indirect parasite,
    Intermediate host -
    Coprophagous beetle
  154. ________ - The “Eyeworm” of dogs, sheep, deer, cattle and cats
    Thelazia californiensis
  155. _______(the house fly) and ______(the face fly) are mechanical host flies that transmit this larvae or eggs from eye to eye.
    • Musca domestica 
    • Musca autumnalis
  156. Life Cycle of Dirofilaria Immitis
    • 1. Dog #1 has adults(S5) and microfilaria (S1)
    • 2. Mosquito takes blood and picks up S1.
    • 3. S1 molts to S3 in mosquito, time temp. depend.
    • 4. Mosquito inserts S3 & saliva in Dog#2.
    • 5. S3 molts to S4 in subcutaneous tissue. 3-5 days
    • 6. S4 stays in subcutaneous tissue for 100 days.
    • 7. S4 molts to S5 (pre-adult) and it moves to pa.
    • 8. S5 pa stays in pa for 80 days and then molts to adult S5.
  157. Life Cycle of the Spirocerca lupi
    • 1. Eggs are deposited in the stool
    • 2. Eggs hatch only after ingestion by a coprophagic beetle
    • 3. Larvae become infective and encyst in the tracheal tubes of the beetle
    • 4. Beetle (intermediate host) will be ingested by a parentenic host (Lizard)
    • 5. Parentenic host is ingested by the dog (definitive host). The larvae are liberated in the stomach, penetrate the stomach wall, find their way via the arterial system to the aorta and then to the esophagus.
  158. What is the prepatent period for Spirocerca lupi?
    Prepatent period is about 6 months. 
  159. List three areas that you will find migrating Spirocerca lupi
    • adventitia (layer of wall) of the visceral arteries
    • walls of the esophagus
    • stomach

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