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when do you observe precocious puberty?
when it is partial i.e breast buds only
do u give topical estrogen to women with estrogen receptor cancer?
non hormonal options for menopausal symptoms?
ocp decrease risk of what cancer?
what drugs decrease the effectiveness of ocp?
all drugs that increase cyt p 450
in what way does progesterone prevents fertilization?
increases cervical viscosity
iud's have what hormone in it?
rx for primary dysmenorhea?
differenece between dysmenorrhea and premenstrual or premenstrual dysphoric disorder?
pms or pmdd--occur prior to menses--nsaid and ssri
dysmenorhhhea--during menses--nsaid and ocp
rx for endometriosis?
- ocp and nsaids
- gnrh agonist
if refractory sx
risk factor for endometrioma/
most common cause of aub?
enlarged uterus and menometrorrhagia for months?
bleeding with with severe menstrual pelvic pain?
menorrhagia and perimenauposal?
hyperplasia of endometrium
aub started with menarche?
depression + constipation + aub?
rx for menorragia?
- iv and tamponade with foley catherer
criteria for pcos?
- androgen excess
- polycystic ovaries on ultrasound
when do you screen for gc./
all women in their 20's
which abcess you do not i and d?
tubo ovarian abscess
what two genital ulcers are painful/?
what std looks like crohns?
p. fibrosis rx?
endometrial cancer limted to the endometrial lining, next step in management if fertility is still desired?
progestins untill child bearing years are over
most important prognostic factor for cervical cancer vs melanoma/
rx for squamous cell carcinoma of vagina?
radiation unless its less than 2 cm
which type of endometrial cancer has the worst prognosis?
type 2--estrogen independent
characteristics of benign ovarian cysts?
cystic mass, smooth, few depta
which ovarian cysts cause torsion?
what decreases the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer?
decreased estrogen--i.e less ovulatory cycles --due to pregnancy
management of an ovarian tumor?
which breast cancers are bilateral?
papp-a is high or low in trisomies?
inhibin is high or low in edwards?
high in edwards
when is percutaneous umbilical blood sampling done?
- fetal anemia
- fetal thrombocytopenia
- hyper or hypothyroid
what vaccines are given to pregnany wome?
- pcv, mcv, hep a and hep b
when do you do amniocentesis?
- abnormal quad screen
- rh possibility
- fetal lung maturity
what is the quad screen for turners?
same as for down
preeclampsia before 20 weeks cause?
rx for gestational diabetes?
what do anticonvulsants do in pregnancy?
decrease folate intake
decrease clotting factor production
rx for intrauterine fetal demise?
- >24 weeks---induction vis oxytocin, prostaglandin
what causes fingernail hypoplasia teratogenic defect?
what causes cns, craniofacial, ear and cvs teratogenic side effects?
what ratio differentiates between symmetric IUGR and assymetric?
assymetric--increased head to abdomen ratio
oligohydramnioas and polyhydramnios afi?
when do you not do a manyal examination of cervix?
the earliest finding for IUGR?
abdominal circumference <10% for gestational age
nitrazine paper turns what color in prom?
when do you give calcium gluconate for high electrolytes?
rx for vasa previa?
what do fetuses share based on when they split in terms of 4 days, 8 days, 12 days
- 4--diamniotic, dichorionic
- 8- diamniotic, monochorionic
- 12--monoamniotic, monochorionic
how do you deliver multiple gestations?
c secition unless vertex-vertex presenation
complete mole is how many chromosomes, fetal parts?
46xx--no fetal parts
hydatidiform mole vs choriocarcinoma?
- both derived from trophoblast
- mole--- benign
chorio--malignant--from mole, pregnancy
management of pregnancy before 34 and after 34 weeks?
- <34--steroids, tocolysis, abx
- >34--- active expectation, abx