# Technicians Exam-Operating Procedures

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1. T2A01 What is the most common repeater frequency offset in the 2 meter band?
A. Plus 500 kHz
B. Plus or minus 600 kHz
C. Minus 500 kHz
D. Only plus 600 kHz
• B. Plus or minus 600 kHz
• The amount of repeater offset or shift is the same for almost all repeaters on one band as shown in the table below. This standardization makes it easy to use many different repeaters. Note that offset can often be either positive or negative by region or to allow more repeaters to occupy a single band, so be sure to use a repeater directory to determine the proper offset. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 6-16]
2. T2A02 What is the national calling frequency for FM simplex operations in the 70 cm band?
A. 146.520 MHz
B. 145.000 MHz
C. 432.100 MHz
D. 446.000 MHz
D. 446.000 MHz446.000 MHz — the nationwide calling frequencies for FM simplex are listed in the table below. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 6-14]
3. T2A03 What is a common repeater frequency offset in the 70 cm band?
A. Plus or minus 5 MHz
B. Plus or minus 600 kHz
C. Minus 600 kHz
D. Plus 600 kHz
• A. Plus or minus 5 MHzThe amount of repeater offset or shift is the same for almost all repeaters on one band as shown in the table below. This standardization makes it easy to use many different repeaters. Note that offset can often be either positive or negative by region or to allow more repeaters to occupy a single band, so be sure to use a repeater directory to determine the proper offset. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 6-16]
4. T2A04 What is an appropriate way to call another station on a repeater if you know the other station’s call sign?
A. Say “break, break” then say the station’s call sign
B. Say the station’s call sign then identify with your call sign
C. Say “CQ” three times then the other station’s call sign
D. Wait for the station to call “CQ” then answer it
• B. Say the station’s call sign then identify with your call sign
• To call another station when the repeater is not in use, just give both call signs. For example, “N1IL, this is N1BKE.” If the repeater is in use, but the conversation sounds like it is about to end, wait before calling another station. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 6-12]
5. T2A05 What should you transmit when responding to a call of CQ?
A. CQ followed by the other station’s call sign
B. Your call sign followed by the other station’s call sign
C. The other station’s call sign followed by your call sign
D. A signal report followed by your call sign
• C. The other station’s call sign followed by your call sign
• On phone, say the other station’s call sign followed by “this is” and your call sign at least once using phonetics, such as those in the table of ITU phonetics below. On CW, substitute the abbreviation DE for “this is.” There is no need to send your call sign more than twice unless there is a lot of noise or interference present or the calling station is very weak. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 6-13]
6. T2A06 What must an amateur operator do when making on-air transmissions to test equipment or antennas?
A. Properly identify the transmitting station
B. Make test transmissions only after 10:00 p.m. local time
C. Notify the FCC of the test transmission
D. State the purpose of the test during the test procedure
• A. Properly identify the transmitting station
• Unidentified transmissions are not allowed, so be sure to follow FCC Rules. The identification rules are simple — give your call sign at least once every 10 minutes during a contact and when the contact is finished. To establish contact you will need to give your call sign as well, although it’s not required. If the transmission or contact is too short for the 10 minute rule, just give your call sign as you end the contact. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 8-3]
7. T2A07 Which of the following is true when making a test transmission?
A. Station identification is not required if the transmission is less than 15 seconds
B. Station identification is not required if the transmission is less than 1 watt
C. Station identification is required only if your station can be heard
D. Station identification is required at least every ten minutes during the test and at the end
• D. Station identification is required at least every ten minutes during the test and at the end
• Unidentified transmissions are not allowed, so be sure to follow FCC Rules. The identification rules are simple — give your call sign at least once every 10 minutes during a contact and when the contact is finished. To establish contact you will need to give your call sign as well, although it’s not required. If the transmission or contact is too short for the 10 minute rule, just give your call sign as you end the contact. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 8-3]
8. T2A08 What is the meaning of the procedural signal “CQ”?
A. Call on the quarter hour
B. A new antenna is being tested (no station should answer)
C. Only the called station should transmit
D. Calling any station
• D. Calling any station
• CQ literally means “Calling any station.” You can usually tell good operators by how they call CQ. A good operator makes short, crisp calls separated by listening periods. Think of a CQ as an advertisement for your station and your operating skills. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 6-13]
9. T2A09 What brief statement is often used in place of “CQ” to indicate that you are listening on a repeater?
A. Say “Hello test” followed by your call sign
B. Say your call sign
C. Say the repeater call sign followed by your call sign
D. Say the letters “QSY” followed by your call sign
• B. Say your call sign
• Since a repeater’s signal is generally strong and the output frequency fixed, there is no need for an extended CQ call as there is when using SSB or CW. All that’s necessary is to announce your presence and anyone who wishes to call you will then do so. It is also common to say “monitoring” following your call sign to reinforce that you are present and listening. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 6-12]
10. T2A10 What is a band plan, beyond the privileges established by the FCC?
A. A voluntary guideline for using different modes or activities within an amateur band
B. A mandated list of operating schedules
C. A list of scheduled net frequencies
D. A plan devised by a club to use a frequency band during a contest
• A. A voluntary guideline for using different modes or activities within an amateur band
• Band plans are voluntary agreements between operators about how to use the bands under normal circumstances. These plans go into more detail on using different operating modes within an amateur band than is specified in FCC regulations. Good operators are familiar with the band plans and try to follow them. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 7-15]
11. T2A11 What are the FCC rules regarding power levels used in the amateur bands?
A. Always use the maximum power allowed to ensure that you complete the contact
B. An amateur may use no more than 200 watts PEP to make an amateur contact
C. An amateur may use up to 1500 watts PEP on any amateur frequency
D. An amateur must use the minimum transmitter power necessary to carry out the desired communication
• D. An amateur must use the minimum transmitter power necessary to carry out the desired communication
• [97.313(a)] — Although the maximum power level available to amateurs is 1500 watts PEP, the vast majority of contacts require far less power. Amateurs are required to avoid using excessive power levels to allow more hams to use the frequency. This does not mean you must reduce power until the other operator is barely able to hear you, just use a power level that provides satisfactory results. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 7-14]
12. T2B01 What is the term used to describe an amateur station that is transmitting and receiving on the same frequency?
A. Full duplex communication
B. Diplex communication
C. Simplex communication
D. Half duplex communication
• C. Simplex communication
• In Amateur Radio, simplex operation means that the stations are communicating by transmitting and receiving on the same frequency. Using a repeater with different transmit and receive frequencies is called duplex operation. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 6-10]
13. T2B02 What is the term used to describe the use of a sub-audible tone transmitted with normal voice audio to open the squelch of a receiver?
A. Carrier squelch
B. Tone burst
C. DTMF
D. CTCSS
• D. CTCSS
• Repeater access tones were invented by Motorola to allow different commercial users to share a repeater without having to listen to each other’s conversations. These tones are known by various names: Continuous Tone Coded Squelch System (CTCSS), PL (for Private Line, the Motorola trade name), or subaudible. FRS/GMRS radio users know these tones as privacy codes or privacy tones. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 6-16]
14. T2B03 Which of the following describes the muting of receiver audio controlled solely by the presence or absence of an RF signal?
A. Tone squelch
B. Carrier squelch
C. CTCSS
D. Modulated carrier
• B. Carrier squelch
• To keep from having to listen to continuous noise when no signal is present, the squelch circuit was invented. The squelch circuit (sometimes called carrier squelch) mutes the receiver’s audio output when no signal is present. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 5-6]
15. T2B04 Which of the following common problems might cause you to be able to hear but not access a repeater even when transmitting with the proper offset?
A. The repeater receiver requires audio tone burst for access
B. The repeater receiver requires a CTCSS tone for access
C. The repeater receiver may require a DCS tone sequence for access
D. All of these choices are correct
• D. All of these choices are correct
• If you can hear a repeater’s signal and you’re sure you are using the right offset, but you can’t access the repeater, then you probably don’t have your radio set up to use the right type or frequency of access tone. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 6-17]
16. T2B05 What determines the amount of deviation of an FM signal?
A. Both the frequency and amplitude of the modulating signal
B. The frequency of the modulating signal
C. The amplitude of the modulating signal
D. The relative phase of the modulating signal and the carrier
• C. The amplitude of the modulating signal
17. T2B06 What happens when the deviation of an FM transmitter is increased?
A. Its signal occupies more bandwidth
B. Its output power increases
C. Its output power and bandwidth increases
D. Asymmetric modulation occurs
• A. Its signal occupies more bandwidth
18. T2B07 What should you do if you receive a report that your station’s transmissions are causing splatter or interference on nearby frequencies?
A. Increase transmit power
B. Change mode of transmission
C. Report the interference to the equipment manufacturer
D. Check your transmitter for off-frequency operation or spurious emissions
• D. Check your transmitter for off-frequency operation or spurious emissions
• Your equipment can cause spurious emissions if you operate it with some controls adjusted improperly. For example, if you set your microphone gain too high on an SSB transmitter, the resulting overmodulation creates spurious signals on nearby frequencies. On FM, misadjusting your tuning control or speaking too loudly (causing excessive deviation) can cause your signal to encroach on an adjacent channel. Every ham should make sure to transmit in a way that minimizes the possibility of causing harmful interference. Reports of interference such as transmitting off-frequency or generating spurious signals (splatter and buckshot) should always be checked out. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 8-7]
19. T2B08 What is the proper course of action if your station’s transmission unintentionally interferes with another station?
A. Rotate your antenna slightly
B. Properly identify your transmission and move to a different frequency
C. Increase power
D. Change antenna polarization
• B. Properly identify your transmission and move to a different frequency
• Accidental interference happens frequently — perhaps you didn’t hear the other stations before transmitting. Simple courtesy works wonders! Just say “excuse me,” give your call sign, and move to a different frequency. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 8-8]
20. T2B09 Which of the following methods is encouraged by the FCC when identifying your station when using phone?
A. Use of a phonetic alphabet
B. Send your call sign in CW as well as voice
C. Repeat your call sign three times
D. Increase your signal to full power when identifying
• A. Use of a phonetic alphabet[97.119(b)(2)] — If the other operator is having difficulty copying your signals you should use the standard International Telecommunication Union (ITU) phonetic alphabet (see question T2A05). Use the words in the phonetic alphabet to spell out the letters in your call sign, your name or any other piece of information that might be confused if the letters are not received correctly. This phonetic alphabet is generally understood by hams in all countries. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 8-3] *T2A05 - On phone, say the other station’s call sign followed by “this is” and your call sign at least once using phonetics, such as those in the table of ITU phonetics below. On CW, substitute the abbreviation DE for “this is.” There is no need to send your call sign more than twice unless there is a lot of noise or interference present or the calling station is very weak. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 6-13]
21. T2B10 What is the “Q” signal used to indicate that you are receiving interference from other stations?
A. QRM
B. QRN
C. QTH
D. QSB
• A. QRM
• Q-signals are a system of making queries and exchanging information in an abbreviated form. They also allow operators who speak different languages to communicate. QRM refers to interference from other stations. QRN refers to interference from atmospheric static, and QTH means the station’s location. QSB indicates signal fading. There are many useful Q-signals used by amateurs. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 6-5]
22. T2B11 What is the “Q” signal used to indicate that you are changing frequency?
A. QRU
B. QSY
C. QSL
D. QRZ
• B. QSY
• QSY means, “I am changing frequency.” (See also question T2B10) [Ham Radio License Manual, page 6-5] *T2B10 - Q-signals are a system of making queries and exchanging information in an abbreviated form. They also allow operators who speak different languages to communicate. QRM refers to interference from other stations. QRN refers to interference from atmospheric static, and QTH means the station’s location. QSB indicates signal fading. There are many useful Q-signals used by amateurs. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 6-5]
23. T2C01 What set of rules applies to proper operation of your station when using amateur radio at the request of public service officials?
A. RACES Rules
B. ARES Rules
C. FCC Rules
D. FEMA Rules
• C. FCC Rules
• [97.103(a)] — At all times, you are bound by FCC rules, even if using your radio in support of a public safety agency. If you are requested to use the station in a way that violates the FCC rules (except in the case of there being an immediate threat to life or property), you should politely decline. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 6-26]
24. T2C04 What do RACES and ARES have in common?
A. They represent the two largest ham clubs in the United States
B. Both organizations broadcast road and weather traffic information
C. Neither may handle emergency traffic supporting public service agencies
D. Both organizations may provide communications during emergencies
• D. Both organizations may provide communications during emergencies
• RACES stands for Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service, a communications service within the amateur service. RACES provides communications assistance to civil defense organizations in times of need. It is active only during periods of local, regional or national civil emergencies. ARES stands for Amateur Radio Emergency Service and is sponsored by the ARRL. ARES presents a way for local amateurs to provide emergency communications while working with local public safety agencies and groups such as the Red Cross. ARES can provide communications assistance at any time. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 6-27]
25. T2C05 What is the Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service?
A. An emergency radio service organized by amateur operators
B. A radio service using amateur stations for emergency management or civil defense communications
C. A radio service organized to provide communications at civic events
D. A radio service organized by amateur operators to assist non-military persons
• B. A radio service using amateur stations for emergency management or civil defense communications
• RACES stands for Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service, a communications service within the amateur service. RACES provides communications assistance to civil defense organizations in times of need. It is active only during periods of local, regional or national civil emergencies. ARES stands for Amateur Radio Emergency Service and is sponsored by the ARRL. ARES presents a way for local amateurs to provide emergency communications while working with local public safety agencies and groups such as the Red Cross. ARES can provide communications assistance at any time. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 6-27]
26. T2C06 Which of the following is common practice during net operations to get the immediate attention of the net control station when reporting an emergency?
A. Repeat the words SOS three times followed by the call sign of the reporting station
B. Press the push-to-talk button three times
C. Begin your transmission with “Priority” or “Emergency” followed by your call sign
D. Play a pre-recorded emergency alert tone followed by your call sign
• C. Begin your transmission with “Priority” or “Emergency” followed by your call sign
• It is important to remember that no matter what the purpose or status of a net, a station with emergency traffic should break in at any time. If the net is operating on phone and you are reporting an emergency, break in by saying “Priority” or “Emergency,” followed by your call sign. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 6-22]
27. T2C07 What should you do to minimize disruptions to an emergency traffic net once you have checked in?
A. Whenever the net frequency is quiet, announce your call sign and location
B. Move 5 kHz away from the net’s frequency and use high power to ask other hams to keep clear of the net frequency
C. Do not transmit on the net frequency until asked to do so by the net control station
D. Wait until the net frequency is quiet, then ask for any emergency traffic for your area
• C. Do not transmit on the net frequency until asked to do so by the net control station
• The desire to help may be strong, but remember that unnecessary transmissions just slow things down. The Net Control Station (NCS) will record your call sign and location so that if you’re needed, you can be called. There’s no need to remind the NCS that you’re listening. Once you’ve checked in, you should not transmit unless you are specifically requested or authorized to do so or a request is made for capabilities or information that you can provide. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 6-22]
28. T2C08 What is usually considered to be the most important job of an amateur operator when handling emergency traffic messages?
A. Passing messages exactly as written, spoken or as received
B. Estimating the number of people affected by the disaster
C. Communicating messages to the news media for broadcast outside the disaster area
D. Broadcasting emergency information to the general public
• A. Passing messages exactly as written, spoken or as received
• The most important job during emergency and disaster net operation is the ability to accurately relay or “pass” messages exactly as written, spoken or received. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 6-22]
29. T2C09 When may an amateur station use any means of radio communications at its disposal for essential communications in connection with immediate safety of human life and protection of property?
A. Only when FEMA authorizes it by declaring an emergency
B. When normal communications systems are not available
C. Only when RACES authorizes it by declaring an emergency
D. Only when authorized by the local MARS program director
• B. When normal communications systems are not available
• [97.403] — Stations in distress should use any means at their disposal to attract attention and obtain assistance. This includes operating on frequencies and equipment for which they are not licensed. In an emergency situation where there is immediate risk to life or property and normal forms of communication are unavailable, you may use any means possible to address that risk. [Ham Radio License Manual, page 6-26]
30. T2C10 What is the preamble in a formal traffic message?
A. The first paragraph of the message text
B. The message number
C. The priority handling indicator for the message
D. The information needed to track the message as it passes through the amateur radio traffic handling system
• D. The information needed to track the message as it passes through the amateur radio traffic handling system