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2013-06-09 20:40:41


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  1. Francis Bacon
    an English statesman and writer loved science. he criticized people for relying too heavily on ancient thinker's ideas. he did experiments to prove things true
  2. Rene Decartes
    lived in France, he used mathematics and logic instead of experiments
  3. Isaac Newton
    studied math and physics at Cambridge, believed that all things were acted upon by the same forces, wrote a book about gravity
  4. Edward Jenner
    made teh first vaccination for smallpow from cowpox.
  5. Robert Boyle
    the founder of modern chemistry, questioned Arisdotle's thoughts that everything is made of four things and siad matter was made of lots of smaller particles
  6. Thomas Hobbes
    Thought that humans are naturally horrible, and we need a government with total control to keep us in line.
  7. John Locke
    believed that humans can learn from their mistakes and can rule themselves instead of having a silly monarchy, thought that all people had natural rights and government should protect them.
  8. Voltaire
    he used his pen name voltaire to protect tolerance reason and freedom of religoin and speech. was sent to jail twice and exiled.
  9. Baron de Montesquieu
    studied political liberty and believed that Britain had the best system with it's separation of powers
  10. Jean Jacques Rousseau
    believed strongly in personal rights and thought that society trapped humans. the only good goverment was one that was guieded by the general will of society.
  11. Cesare Bonesana Beccaria
    he beileved that laws were not to punish poeple for breaking them but to preserve social order
  12. Mary Wollstonecraft
    said that women need education to become virtuous and useful and encouraged women to move into fields dominated by men.
  13. Clovis
    Clovis was the ruler of the franks who converted to Christianity and caused many peoples he conquered to convert to Christianity as well.
  14. Charles Martel
    Charles was essentially the ruler of the Frankish kingdom (in gaul) in AD 700, he helped expand the kingdom.
  15. Pepin the Short
    Pepin the Short cooperated with the Pope, and agreed to fight the Lombards if the Pope declared him king by the grace of God.
  16. Charlemagne
    Charlemagne was the king of the Frankish Empire, he expanded his empire tremendously, and was crowned “Roman Emperor” by the Pope.
  17. Louis the Pious
    Son of Charlemagne, was an utterly crap ruler and when he died the treaty of Verdun was signed, splitting his empire into three separate kingdoms
  18. Rollo
    Rollo was a Viking leader who was granted a significant piece of land to settle on by Charles the Simple.
  19. Charles the Simple
    He granted land to the Viking leader Rollo in exchange for their loyalty
  20. Urban II
    Declared a holy war on the Muslims
  21. Philip II
    Philip II was a strong king who doubled the land of France by the end of his rule.
  22. Louis IX
    he was a saintly king who everyone loved, he strengthened monarchy whilst weakening feudality by instituting royal courts that could overrule local courts if desired.
  23. John Wycliff
    taught that Jesus was the head of the church, not the pope
  24. Raphael
    he painted Pope Julius the II’s walls with paintings, and he used perspective
  25. Machiavelli
    He thought that a ruler must be shrewd and craft, and trick his enemies as well as his subjects.
  26. Petrarch
  27. Michelangelo
    his realistic lifelike sculptures involving emotions and nude people
  28. Albrecht Durer
    created woodcuts and engravings that display religious subjects
  29. Jan Van Eyck
    He was one of the first to use oil paintings
  30. Thomas More
    Tried to show a better society in the book utopia
  31. Erasmus
    he is known for “the praise of folly”
  32. John Calvin
    John Calvin was a reformist who would bring order to the reforms started by Martin Luther, he taught predestination and that humans are sinful by nature.
  33. John Knox
    he started the Presbyterians after visiting the city run by Calvin.
  34. Ignatius of Loyola
    He started the Jesuit order, and compared religious meditation to physical exercise.
  35. Pedro Alvares Cabral
    Reached modern day Brazil and claimed the land for his country
  36. Amerigo Vespucci
    claimed the land was not part of Asia but was a “new” world. Americas are named after him
  37. Ferdinand Magellan
    portugese explorer that traveled around southern end of South America and into the waters of the Pacific
  38. Vasco Nunez de Balboa
    marched through modern day panama and was first explorer to gaze at the Pacific Ocean.
  39. Hernando Cortez
    he landed on the shores of Mexico in 1519
  40. Francisco Pizarro
    he conquered the Incan Empire in 1532
  41. Ponce de Leon
    claimed modern day Florida for Spain
  42. Vasquez de Coronado
    led an expedition through present day Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas.
  43. Giovanni da Verrazzano
    he discovered New York Harbor.
  44. Jacques Cartier
    named the river St. Lawrence. Named the island Montreal
  45. Samuel de Champlain
    founded Quebec known as New France
  46. Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet
    explored the Great Lakes and the upper Mississippi River
  47. Sieur de La Salle
    explored the lower Mississippi river and claimed the river valley (aka Louisiana) for France
  48. Henry Hudson
    an Englishman in the service of the Netherlands. He sailed for Asia. He sailed West to find a northwest sea route to Asia.
  49. El Greco
    He was a Spaniard who bore the title “the Greek,” he would create paintings with brilliant clashing colors, and would distort the human image to make a symbolic point. Also focused on Christian subjects
  50. Diego Velazquez
    Used rich colors to depict the royal family in his job as the court painter.
  51. Rembrandt
    Created protraits of Middle class merchants, and other group portraits
  52. Jan Vermeer
    He did paintings of people doing very average tasks, and in very average enviroments.
  53. Henry IV
    Helped France recover from a generation of war
  54. Louis XIII
    Very weak king, Richelieu essentially ruled for him
  55. Richelieu
    He wekened the nobles by forcing them to remove their castles, and he forbade prodestant cities from being walled (in france)
  56. Louis XIV
    Most powerful ruler of France!
  57. Gustavus Adolphus
    A swede who turned the tide of the thirty years war