an English statesman and writer loved science. he criticized people for relying too heavily on ancient thinker's ideas. he did experiments to prove things true
lived in France, he used mathematics and logic instead of experiments
studied math and physics at Cambridge, believed that all things were acted upon by the same forces, wrote a book about gravity
made teh first vaccination for smallpow from cowpox.
the founder of modern chemistry, questioned Arisdotle's thoughts that everything is made of four things and siad matter was made of lots of smaller particles
Thought that humans are naturally horrible, and we need a government with total control to keep us in line.
believed that humans can learn from their mistakes and can rule themselves instead of having a silly monarchy, thought that all people had natural rights and government should protect them.
he used his pen name voltaire to protect tolerance reason and freedom of religoin and speech. was sent to jail twice and exiled.
Baron de Montesquieu
studied political liberty and believed that Britain had the best system with it's separation of powers
Jean Jacques Rousseau
believed strongly in personal rights and thought that society trapped humans. the only good goverment was one that was guieded by the general will of society.
Cesare Bonesana Beccaria
he beileved that laws were not to punish poeple for breaking them but to preserve social order
said that women need education to become virtuous and useful and encouraged women to move into fields dominated by men.
Clovis was the ruler of the franks who converted to Christianity and caused many peoples he conquered to convert to Christianity as well.
Charles was essentially the ruler of the Frankish kingdom (in gaul) in AD 700, he helped expand the kingdom.
Pepin the Short
Pepin the Short cooperated with the Pope, and agreed to fight the Lombards if the Pope declared him king by the grace of God.
Charlemagne was the king of the Frankish Empire, he expanded his empire tremendously, and was crowned “Roman Emperor” by the Pope.
Louis the Pious
Son of Charlemagne, was an utterly crap ruler and when he died the treaty of Verdun was signed, splitting his empire into three separate kingdoms
Rollo was a Viking leader who was granted a significant piece of land to settle on by Charles the Simple.
Charles the Simple
He granted land to the Viking leader Rollo in exchange for their loyalty
Declared a holy war on the Muslims
Philip II was a strong king who doubled the land of France by the end of his rule.
he was a saintly king who everyone loved, he strengthened monarchy whilst weakening feudality by instituting royal courts that could overrule local courts if desired.
taught that Jesus was the head of the church, not the pope
he painted Pope Julius the II’s walls with paintings, and he used perspective
He thought that a ruler must be shrewd and craft, and trick his enemies as well as his subjects.
his realistic lifelike sculptures involving emotions and nude people
created woodcuts and engravings that display religious subjects
Jan Van Eyck
He was one of the first to use oil paintings
Tried to show a better society in the book utopia
he is known for “the praise of folly”
John Calvin was a reformist who would bring order to the reforms started by Martin Luther, he taught predestination and that humans are sinful by nature.
he started the Presbyterians after visiting the city run by Calvin.
Ignatius of Loyola
He started the Jesuit order, and compared religious meditation to physical exercise.
Pedro Alvares Cabral
Reached modern day Brazil and claimed the land for his country
claimed the land was not part of Asia but was a “new” world. Americas are named after him
portugese explorer that traveled around southern end of South America and into the waters of the Pacific
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
marched through modern day panama and was first explorer to gaze at the Pacific Ocean.
he landed on the shores of Mexico in 1519
he conquered the Incan Empire in 1532
Ponce de Leon
claimed modern day Florida for Spain
Vasquez de Coronado
led an expedition through present day Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas.
Giovanni da Verrazzano
he discovered New York Harbor.
named the river St. Lawrence. Named the island Montreal
Samuel de Champlain
founded Quebec known as New France
Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet
explored the Great Lakes and the upper Mississippi River
Sieur de La Salle
explored the lower Mississippi river and claimed the river valley (aka Louisiana) for France
an Englishman in the service of the Netherlands. He sailed for Asia. He sailed West to find a northwest sea route to Asia.
He was a Spaniard who bore the title “the Greek,” he would create paintings with brilliant clashing colors, and would distort the human image to make a symbolic point. Also focused on Christian subjects
Used rich colors to depict the royal family in his job as the court painter.
Created protraits of Middle class merchants, and other group portraits
He did paintings of people doing very average tasks, and in very average enviroments.
Helped France recover from a generation of war
Very weak king, Richelieu essentially ruled for him
He wekened the nobles by forcing them to remove their castles, and he forbade prodestant cities from being walled (in france)
Most powerful ruler of France!
A swede who turned the tide of the thirty years war