Micro lab Exam 1

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Micro lab Exam 1
2013-06-12 12:52:44
Micro lab Exam1

Micro lab Exam 1
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  1. Streptococcus
  2. Staphylococcus
  3. Bacillus
  4. Spirilla
  5. Spirillum
  6. Cyanobacteria - Anabaena
  7. Spirulina
  8. Oscillatoria
  9. Streptococcus pyogenes
  10. Staphylococcus aureus
  11. Proteus vulgaris
  12. Bacillus subtilis
  13. Phylum Zygomycota
  14. Ascomycota
  15. Penicillium
  16. Aspergillus
  17. Candida albicans
  18. Define light microscope
    uses glass lenses and light to magnify an image
  19. define magnification
    makes an image appear larger then its actual size
  20. for the ocular lens, what magnification does it have?
  21. list the 4 objective lens powers and their names
    • scanning/low power objective-4x
    • medium power objective-10x
    • high/dry power objective lens-40x
    • oil immersion lens- 100x
  22. define total magnification
    • how large an object appears compared to its actual size
    • objective lens (10x) X (objective power, 4, 10, 40, 100x)
  23. define resolution
    • resolving power
    • ability to distinguish between two closely spaces points as seperate
    • (affects the clarity)
  24. Good resolution is dependent on two things:
    • 1. wavelength of the light used
    • 2. numerical aperture of the lens (ability of the lens to gather light)
  25. visible light has a wavelength between ______ and _________ nm.  We use _______ light which has a resolution of _______ nm.
    • 350-700 nm
    • blue light
    • 480-500
  26. what is working distance?
    space between the stage and the objective lens when the specimen is in focus
  27. define parfocal
    once the specimen is in focus, you can change the objective lens and the specimen remain in course focus
  28. define field of view
    circle of light observed through microscope
  29. as magnification increases, the field of view ______
  30. what are the steps on how to focus the oil immersion lens?
    1. the object must be in focus on high dry (40x) before you can do oil immersion

    2. use the nosepiece to move halfway between high dry and oil immersion

    3. add a drop of immersion oil to the slide

    4. use the nosepiece to click the oil immersion lens into place

    (do not move the stage down, the oil will touch the slide, use only the fine adjustment knob to focus)

    5. when done, clean the oil off the slide and off the lens with lens paper
  31. all organisms belong to 3 domains, name them
    • domain bacteria
    • domain archaea
    • domain eukarya
  32. name the difference of # of cells, nucleus and size between prokaryotic and eukaryotic
    • prokaryotic:
    • single celled
    • no nucleus
    • smaller

    • eukaryotic:
    • single or multicelled
    • nucleus present
    • large
  33. which organelle can only be seen in oil immersion lens
  34. name the 3 shapes of bacteria
    • 1. coccus/cocci
    • 2. bacillus/bacilli
    • 3. spirllium/spirilli
  35. define cyanobacteria
    are a little larger, we do not need the oil immersion lens, we can see it on 40x. 

    they make their own food by photosynthesis

    • they do not  conform to the shapes of
    • regular bacteria

  36. Rhizopus
  37. yeast
  38. define hypha
    • a single filament
    • growth form of the fungi
  39. define septate
    has cross walls between cells (fungi)
  40. define coenocytic
    no cross walls between cells, nuclear division without cytokinesis (fungi)
  41. define mycelium
    • group of branched hypha
    • form fungal body
  42. how is fungus classified?
    by type of sexual reproduction
  43. list the four groups of fungi
    1. lower fungi (phylum zygomycota)

    2. Phylum Ascomycota

    3. Phylum Basidiomycota

    4. Deuteromycetes (Imperfect Fungi)
  44. describe basidiomycetes (classification of fungi)
    hypha produce a structure called basidium

    generates spores externally

    doesn't cause human disease
  45. describe ascomycetes (classification of fungi)
    spore formed internally by ascus (club shaped cells)

    higher fungi
  46. describe lower fungi (phylum zygomycota) (classification of fungi)
    sexual reproduction by spores without a basidium or ascus

    no septa

    water mold or bread mold
  47. describe deuteromycetes (classification of fungi)
    aka imperfect fungi

    no sexual stage observed
  48. define conidia
    asexual spores

    phylum ascomycota
  49. define saprobes
    • eat dead material (decomposers)
    • fungi
  50. define parasites
    • live off a live host
    • fungi
  51. describe characteristics of yeast
    single celled fungi

    makes bred, alcohol

    members of Phylum Ascomycetes
  52. describe characteristics of Aspergillus
    Phylum Ascomycetes

    ball shaped/dandelion

    skin and respiratory infections

    black mold found in buildings
  53. which fungi is black mold found in buildings

    Phylum Ascomycetes
  54. describe characteristics of penicillium
    Phylum Ascomycetes

    spores in chains

    first antibiotic discovered
  55. describe characteristics of rhizopus
    lower fungi (phylum zygomycota)

    black bread mold

    root rot in beets

    head rot it sunflowers

    opportunistic pathogen of wounds ( doesnt really make human sick unless they have wounds) skin and respiratory infections
  56. describe characteristics of candida
    candida albicans causes human yeast infections


    dimorphic fungi
  57. describe characteristics of fungi
    • eukaryotic
    • most multicellular
    • heterotrophic  by absorption
    • extracellular digestion
  58. describe characteristics of protista
    • eukaryotic
    • mainly unicellular (single celled)
    • 2 major group: algae and protozoans
  59. describe characteristics of algae
    under kingdom protista


    photosynthetic (chloroplasts containing chlorophyll a )

    primary producers


    cell wall made of cellulose

    groups: pigmented flagellates, nonmotile forms, and diatoms (cell wall made of silica)
  60. describe characteristics of protozoa
    kingdom fungi


    primary consumers


    • groups: based on motility
    • mastigophora (one or more flagella), sarcodina (amoeboid movement), ciliates (hair like cilia), sporozoa ( non motile, parasitic)
  61. spirogyra

    filamentous algae

    sexual reproduction
  62. chlamydomonas

    kingdom protista:protozoa: Mastigophora

  63. Euglena

    Kingdom protista: Protozoa: Mastigophora

    mixotrophic (autotrophic and heterotrophic)
  64. trichomonas vaginalis

    STD: trich

    4 flagella

    dark spot is called: axostyle

    no cysts form in life cycle

    Trophozoite is infectious
  65. Amoeba proteus

    Kingdom Protista: protozoa: Sarcodina

    uses pseudopodia: temporary extens cytoplasm for locomotion and trapping prey
  66. what is pseudopodia
    • false feet
    • temporary extends cytoplasm for locomotion and trapping prey

    in sarcodina
  67. Paramecium caudatum

    Kingdom protista: protozoa: c ciliophora (ciliates), uses cilia

    short appendages

    used for locomotion and funnel prey
  68. Describe Giardia lamblia
    trophozoite in duodenum

    Beaver Fever: reservoir host

    Travelers diarrhea

    two nucleii


    drinking untreated water in mountain area
  69. Trichomonas vaginalis

    STD: trich

    sexual contact, moist areas

    four flagella

    dark spot called axostyle

    no cyst form in life cycle

    trophozoite is infectious

  70. Trypanosome gambiense

    African Sleeping disease

    Kingdom Protista: protozoa: mastigophora

    • vector born disease
    • tse tse fly

    first organism to have mitochondrion

    lymph nodes enlarge, lost of interest, low activity, eyes droop, fall asleep often
  71. describe Plasmodium falciparum

    • vector borne disease
    • Anopheles mosquito

    complex life cycle

    flu like symptoms, cold phase, hot phase, and wet phase
  72. diatoms
  73. define photosynthetic
    uses sunlight as food, convert to energy
  74. define primary producer
    • photosynthetic
    • makes its own food
  75. define primary consumer
    consumes producers
  76. define vector
    what carries the pathogen from host to host
  77. define reservoir host
    intermediate keeper
  78. what has an eye spot?
  79. describe characteristics of Helminths

    • Domain Eukarya
    • Kingdom Animalia

    • 2 types:
    • phylum platyhelminths
    • phylum nemotoda
  80. describe characteristics of phylum platyhelminths
    • (helminths)
    • flat worms, thin but wide

    aquatic in moist soil

    many are parasitic

    • 2 groups:
    • Trematoda (flukes)
    • Cestoda (tapeworms)

    • need alternate hosts
  81. describe characteristics of Phylum Nematoda
    • (helminths)
    • round worms

    • 3 types:
    • hookworm
    • trichomosis
    • pinworm
  82. describe characteristics of group trematoda
    • Phylum Platyhelminths
    • flukes
    • named by the part of the body they infect
    • can be monoecious or dioecious
    • need alternate hosts
    • parasitic with oral suckers
  83. describe characteristics of group cestoda
    Phylum Platyhelminths


    body has scolex (head) and proglottids


    undercooked meat
  84. give 2 examples of Phylum Platyhelminths group trematoda
    • Shistosoma mansoni (dioecious)
    • Clonorchis sinensis
  85. define monoecious
    both male and female together
  86. define dioecious
    seperate male and femals
  87. give 3 examples of Phylum Platyhelminths, group cestoda
    • Taenia solium
    • Taenia saginata
    • Dipyllobothrium latum
    • (Shistosoma mansoni)
    • Phylum Platyhelminths
    • Group Trematoda
    • dioecious
    • blood fluke
    • (Clonorchis sinensis)
    • Phylum Platyhelminths
    • Group Trematoda
    • Liver fluke
    • monoecioius
    • Phylum Platyhelminths
    • Group Cestoda
    • Phylum Platyhelminths
    • Group Crestoda
    • Proglottids
    • (Diphyllobothrium latum)
    • Phylum Platyhelminths
    • Group Crestoda
  88. define scolex
    head with suckers and hooks in a tapeworm (crestoda)
  89. define proglittids
    • what holds the Male and Female parts
    • found in tapeworms (crestoda)
  90. describe the characteristics of Trichomosis
    Phylum Nematoda

    cyst in muscle

    • Trichinella
    • Phylum Nematoda
  91. describe characteristics of the pin worm
    • Phylum Nematoda
    • Enterobius Vermicularis

    most common in the US

    females lay eggs in anus, (mostly children) scratch anus and gets spread.

    white specs in anus area
    • Phylum Nematoda
    • pin worms
    • Enterobius Vermicularis
  92. describe characteristics of the hook worm
    • Phylum Nematoda
    • Necatur Americanus

    common in Africa and Southern States

    chronic anemia

    eggs in moist ground, touch humans, get in blood, then lungs, then swallowed and get in intestines, then attached to body with hook
    • Phylum Nematoda
    • Necatur Americanus
    • hook worms
  93. define nutrient
    Substance that provides nourishment for growth
  94. define macronutrient
    nutrients that required in large amount
  95. define micronutrient
    nutrients in smaller amount
  96. define agar
    • solid form
    • thickener
  97. define broth
    • liquid form
    • contains nutrients
  98. define media
    material used to grow microorganisms, contains nutrients
  99. define synthetic media
    components of the media are all known
  100. define complex media
    components of the media are all not known, atleast 1 ingredients isnt known
  101. define differential media
    reagents that gets different reactions from different organisms
  102. define selective media
    • encourages some bacteria to grow and inhibits others
    • allows only 1 microorganism to survive
    • contains an inhibitor to prevent or slow the growth of desired organisms
  103. define minimal media
    • contains small amounts of ingredients
    • encourages minimal growth
  104. define enriched media
    contains large amounts of ingredients and encourages maximum growth
  105. define slant tube
    tube of agar that is slanted to increase the surface area for growth
  106. define aseptic technique
    avoiding contamination

    prevents unwanted organisms
  107. define pure culture
    1 species of organism
  108. describe the prep for broth and agar media and include the differences
    For broth: you mix nutrient broth and water, stir and use pipet to put into tubes

    For agar: you use the left over broth add agar and stir over a hot plate and boil, then remove and use pipet to put into tubes

    Difference: broth there is no boiling, agar there is
  109. What is the melting point of agar
    100 C
  110. what is the solidifying point of agar
  111. What is the function of the autoclave?
    Sterilization, heat the media to a point where microorganisms are destroyed
  112. What is the temp, pressure and time length for the autoclave?
    • temp: 121C
    • pressure: 15PSI
    • time length: 15 mins
  113. Why is boiling not suitable for sterilization?
    Boiling is not hot enough to kill spores so you must use an autoclave
  114. define inoculate
    to transfer bacteria from one media to another
  115. define stock culture
    store for later use
  116. what is a commonly used method of isolation technique
    streak plate
  117. define turbidity
    cloudiness, sign of growth in nutrient broth
  118. give the aseptic technique steps for inoculating broth and agar media
    • 1. flame the loop(4-5 sec)
    • 2. screw off cap of tube with pinkie finger
    • 3. flame the top of the tube
    • 4. place loop in the tube
    • 5. flame the top of the tube
    • 6. screw on cap
    • 7. screw off top to second tube
    • 8. flame the top of tube 2
    • 9. place loop in tube 2
    • 10. flame top of tube 2
    • 11. screw on top
    • 12. flame loop
  119. why are the openings of tubes heated?
    to kill off bacteria
  120. what is the function of the incubator
    to speed up growth
  121. what is the optimal time and temp for incubation
    • 24-48 hrs
    • 37C
  122. what does the inoculating loop do?
    used to pick up bacteria
  123. define isolated colony
    • bacterial growth
    • pimple looking
    • restricted to one place
    • forming a visible mass of growth
  124. define streak plate
    • streaking bacteria to the surface of agar
    • trying to isolate a colony
  125. describe the steps of streaking a plate
    • 1. flame loop
    • 2. screw off top of tube with pinkie finger
    • 3. flame top of tube
    • 4. put loop in tube
    • 5. flame the top of tube
    • 6. screw top back on tube
    • 7. streak section one with loop
    • 8. flame loop
    • 9. put loop in section one and drag into section 2
    • 10. etc
  126. streak plate
  127. explain where the bacteria are located in a streak plate as compared to a pour plate
    • Streak plate: on surface
    • pour plate: in agar (mixed in)
  128. why are petri dishes inverted during incubation
    • prevents condensation
    • we dont want water to fall into our agar, we want it to fall into the lid
  129. what is the purpose of the streak plate method?
    to isolate a colony
  130. define pour plate
    space out bacteria enough to where we can count them
  131. define dilution
    • used in pour plating
    • dilute to get fewer cells

    decrease the number
  132. what is loop dilution
    loop full
  133. define serial dilution
    series of tubes and loop fulls
  134. describe the steps in creating a pour plate
    • 1. 1 loopful of stock culture into #1 tube
    • 2. shake/rotate
    • 3. 2 loopfuls of #1 into #2 tube, pour #1 remainings in dish
    • 4. shake/rotate
    • 5. 3 loopfuls of # 2 into #3, then pour # 2 remainings in dish
    • 6. shake/rotate
    • 7. Pour # 3 remainings in dish
  135. why do the tubes in pour plating need to be rotated back and fourth between palms?
    to mix the bacteria
  136. what is the purpose of the pour plate?
    to count cells
  137. pour plate