Micro lab Exam 1

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    Cyanobacteria - Anabaena
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    Streptococcus pyogenes
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    Staphylococcus aureus
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    Proteus vulgaris
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    Bacillus subtilis
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    Phylum Zygomycota
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    Candida albicans
  18. Define light microscope
    uses glass lenses and light to magnify an image
  19. define magnification
    makes an image appear larger then its actual size
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  21. for the ocular lens, what magnification does it have?
  22. list the 4 objective lens powers and their names
    • scanning/low power objective-4x
    • medium power objective-10x
    • high/dry power objective lens-40x
    • oil immersion lens- 100x
  23. define total magnification
    • how large an object appears compared to its actual size
    • objective lens (10x) X (objective power, 4, 10, 40, 100x)
  24. define resolution
    • resolving power
    • ability to distinguish between two closely spaces points as seperate
    • (affects the clarity)
  25. Good resolution is dependent on two things:
    • 1. wavelength of the light used
    • 2. numerical aperture of the lens (ability of the lens to gather light)
  26. visible light has a wavelength between ______ and _________ nm.  We use _______ light which has a resolution of _______ nm.
    • 350-700 nm
    • blue light
    • 480-500
  27. what is working distance?
    space between the stage and the objective lens when the specimen is in focus
  28. define parfocal
    once the specimen is in focus, you can change the objective lens and the specimen remain in course focus
  29. define field of view
    circle of light observed through microscope
  30. as magnification increases, the field of view ______
  31. what are the steps on how to focus the oil immersion lens?
    1. the object must be in focus on high dry (40x) before you can do oil immersion

    2. use the nosepiece to move halfway between high dry and oil immersion

    3. add a drop of immersion oil to the slide

    4. use the nosepiece to click the oil immersion lens into place

    (do not move the stage down, the oil will touch the slide, use only the fine adjustment knob to focus)

    5. when done, clean the oil off the slide and off the lens with lens paper
  32. all organisms belong to 3 domains, name them
    • domain bacteria
    • domain archaea
    • domain eukarya
  33. name the difference of # of cells, nucleus and size between prokaryotic and eukaryotic
    • prokaryotic:
    • single celled
    • no nucleus
    • smaller

    • eukaryotic:
    • single or multicelled
    • nucleus present
    • large
  34. which organelle can only be seen in oil immersion lens
  35. name the 3 shapes of bacteria
    • 1. coccus/cocci
    • 2. bacillus/bacilli
    • 3. spirllium/spirilli
  36. define cyanobacteria
    are a little larger, we do not need the oil immersion lens, we can see it on 40x. 

    they make their own food by photosynthesis

    • they do not  conform to the shapes of
    • regular bacteria

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  39. define hypha
    • a single filament
    • growth form of the fungi
  40. define septate
    has cross walls between cells (fungi)
  41. define coenocytic
    no cross walls between cells, nuclear division without cytokinesis (fungi)
  42. define mycelium
    • group of branched hypha
    • form fungal body
  43. how is fungus classified?
    by type of sexual reproduction
  44. list the four groups of fungi
    1. lower fungi (phylum zygomycota)

    2. Phylum Ascomycota

    3. Phylum Basidiomycota

    4. Deuteromycetes (Imperfect Fungi)
  45. describe basidiomycetes (classification of fungi)
    hypha produce a structure called basidium

    generates spores externally

    doesn't cause human disease
  46. describe ascomycetes (classification of fungi)
    spore formed internally by ascus (club shaped cells)

    higher fungi
  47. describe lower fungi (phylum zygomycota) (classification of fungi)
    sexual reproduction by spores without a basidium or ascus

    no septa

    water mold or bread mold
  48. describe deuteromycetes (classification of fungi)
    aka imperfect fungi

    no sexual stage observed
  49. define conidia
    asexual spores

    phylum ascomycota
  50. define saprobes
    • eat dead material (decomposers)
    • fungi
  51. define parasites
    • live off a live host
    • fungi
  52. describe characteristics of yeast
    single celled fungi

    makes bred, alcohol

    members of Phylum Ascomycetes
  53. describe characteristics of Aspergillus
    Phylum Ascomycetes

    ball shaped/dandelion

    skin and respiratory infections

    black mold found in buildings
  54. which fungi is black mold found in buildings

    Phylum Ascomycetes
  55. describe characteristics of penicillium
    Phylum Ascomycetes

    spores in chains

    first antibiotic discovered
  56. describe characteristics of rhizopus
    lower fungi (phylum zygomycota)

    black bread mold

    root rot in beets

    head rot it sunflowers

    opportunistic pathogen of wounds ( doesnt really make human sick unless they have wounds) skin and respiratory infections
  57. describe characteristics of candida
    candida albicans causes human yeast infections


    dimorphic fungi
  58. describe characteristics of fungi
    • eukaryotic
    • most multicellular
    • heterotrophic  by absorption
    • extracellular digestion
  59. describe characteristics of protista
    • eukaryotic
    • mainly unicellular (single celled)
    • 2 major group: algae and protozoans
  60. describe characteristics of algae
    under kingdom protista


    photosynthetic (chloroplasts containing chlorophyll a )

    primary producers


    cell wall made of cellulose

    groups: pigmented flagellates, nonmotile forms, and diatoms (cell wall made of silica)
  61. describe characteristics of protozoa
    kingdom fungi


    primary consumers


    • groups: based on motility
    • mastigophora (one or more flagella), sarcodina (amoeboid movement), ciliates (hair like cilia), sporozoa ( non motile, parasitic)
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    filamentous algae

    sexual reproduction
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    kingdom protista:protozoa: Mastigophora

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    Kingdom protista: Protozoa: Mastigophora

    mixotrophic (autotrophic and heterotrophic)
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    trichomonas vaginalis

    STD: trich

    4 flagella

    dark spot is called: axostyle

    no cysts form in life cycle

    Trophozoite is infectious
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    Amoeba proteus

    Kingdom Protista: protozoa: Sarcodina

    uses pseudopodia: temporary extens cytoplasm for locomotion and trapping prey
  67. what is pseudopodia
    • false feet
    • temporary extends cytoplasm for locomotion and trapping prey

    in sarcodina
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    Paramecium caudatum

    Kingdom protista: protozoa: c ciliophora (ciliates), uses cilia

    short appendages

    used for locomotion and funnel prey
  69. Describe Giardia lamblia
    trophozoite in duodenum

    Beaver Fever: reservoir host

    Travelers diarrhea

    two nucleii


    drinking untreated water in mountain area
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    Trichomonas vaginalis

    STD: trich

    sexual contact, moist areas

    four flagella

    dark spot called axostyle

    no cyst form in life cycle

    trophozoite is infectious
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    Trypanosome gambiense

    African Sleeping disease

    Kingdom Protista: protozoa: mastigophora

    • vector born disease
    • tse tse fly

    first organism to have mitochondrion

    lymph nodes enlarge, lost of interest, low activity, eyes droop, fall asleep often
  72. describe Plasmodium falciparum

    • vector borne disease
    • Anopheles mosquito

    complex life cycle

    flu like symptoms, cold phase, hot phase, and wet phase
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  74. define photosynthetic
    uses sunlight as food, convert to energy
  75. define primary producer
    • photosynthetic
    • makes its own food
  76. define primary consumer
    consumes producers
  77. define vector
    what carries the pathogen from host to host
  78. define reservoir host
    intermediate keeper
  79. what has an eye spot?
  80. describe characteristics of Helminths

    • Domain Eukarya
    • Kingdom Animalia

    • 2 types:
    • phylum platyhelminths
    • phylum nemotoda
  81. describe characteristics of phylum platyhelminths
    • (helminths)
    • flat worms, thin but wide

    aquatic in moist soil

    many are parasitic

    • 2 groups:
    • Trematoda (flukes)
    • Cestoda (tapeworms)

    • need alternate hosts
  82. describe characteristics of Phylum Nematoda
    • (helminths)
    • round worms

    • 3 types:
    • hookworm
    • trichomosis
    • pinworm
  83. describe characteristics of group trematoda
    • Phylum Platyhelminths
    • flukes
    • named by the part of the body they infect
    • can be monoecious or dioecious
    • need alternate hosts
    • parasitic with oral suckers
  84. describe characteristics of group cestoda
    Phylum Platyhelminths


    body has scolex (head) and proglottids


    undercooked meat
  85. give 2 examples of Phylum Platyhelminths group trematoda
    • Shistosoma mansoni (dioecious)
    • Clonorchis sinensis
  86. define monoecious
    both male and female together
  87. define dioecious
    seperate male and femals
  88. give 3 examples of Phylum Platyhelminths, group cestoda
    • Taenia solium
    • Taenia saginata
    • Dipyllobothrium latum
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    • (Shistosoma mansoni)
    • Phylum Platyhelminths
    • Group Trematoda
    • dioecious
    • blood fluke
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    • (Clonorchis sinensis)
    • Phylum Platyhelminths
    • Group Trematoda
    • Liver fluke
    • monoecioius
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    • Phylum Platyhelminths
    • Group Cestoda
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    • Phylum Platyhelminths
    • Group Crestoda
    • Proglottids
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    • (Diphyllobothrium latum)
    • Phylum Platyhelminths
    • Group Crestoda
  94. define scolex
    head with suckers and hooks in a tapeworm (crestoda)
  95. define proglittids
    • what holds the Male and Female parts
    • found in tapeworms (crestoda)
  96. describe the characteristics of Trichomosis
    Phylum Nematoda

    cyst in muscle

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    • Trichinella
    • Phylum Nematoda
  98. describe characteristics of the pin worm
    • Phylum Nematoda
    • Enterobius Vermicularis

    most common in the US

    females lay eggs in anus, (mostly children) scratch anus and gets spread.

    white specs in anus area
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    • Phylum Nematoda
    • pin worms
    • Enterobius Vermicularis
  100. describe characteristics of the hook worm
    • Phylum Nematoda
    • Necatur Americanus

    common in Africa and Southern States

    chronic anemia

    eggs in moist ground, touch humans, get in blood, then lungs, then swallowed and get in intestines, then attached to body with hook
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    • Phylum Nematoda
    • Necatur Americanus
    • hook worms
  102. define nutrient
    Substance that provides nourishment for growth
  103. define macronutrient
    nutrients that required in large amount
  104. define micronutrient
    nutrients in smaller amount
  105. define agar
    • solid form
    • thickener
  106. define broth
    • liquid form
    • contains nutrients
  107. define media
    material used to grow microorganisms, contains nutrients
  108. define synthetic media
    components of the media are all known
  109. define complex media
    components of the media are all not known, atleast 1 ingredients isnt known
  110. define differential media
    reagents that gets different reactions from different organisms
  111. define selective media
    • encourages some bacteria to grow and inhibits others
    • allows only 1 microorganism to survive
    • contains an inhibitor to prevent or slow the growth of desired organisms
  112. define minimal media
    • contains small amounts of ingredients
    • encourages minimal growth
  113. define enriched media
    contains large amounts of ingredients and encourages maximum growth
  114. define slant tube
    tube of agar that is slanted to increase the surface area for growth
  115. define aseptic technique
    avoiding contamination

    prevents unwanted organisms
  116. define pure culture
    1 species of organism
  117. describe the prep for broth and agar media and include the differences
    For broth: you mix nutrient broth and water, stir and use pipet to put into tubes

    For agar: you use the left over broth add agar and stir over a hot plate and boil, then remove and use pipet to put into tubes

    Difference: broth there is no boiling, agar there is
  118. What is the melting point of agar
    100 C
  119. what is the solidifying point of agar
  120. What is the function of the autoclave?
    Sterilization, heat the media to a point where microorganisms are destroyed
  121. What is the temp, pressure and time length for the autoclave?
    • temp: 121C
    • pressure: 15PSI
    • time length: 15 mins
  122. Why is boiling not suitable for sterilization?
    Boiling is not hot enough to kill spores so you must use an autoclave
  123. define inoculate
    to transfer bacteria from one media to another
  124. define stock culture
    store for later use
  125. what is a commonly used method of isolation technique
    streak plate
  126. define turbidity
    cloudiness, sign of growth in nutrient broth
  127. give the aseptic technique steps for inoculating broth and agar media
    • 1. flame the loop(4-5 sec)
    • 2. screw off cap of tube with pinkie finger
    • 3. flame the top of the tube
    • 4. place loop in the tube
    • 5. flame the top of the tube
    • 6. screw on cap
    • 7. screw off top to second tube
    • 8. flame the top of tube 2
    • 9. place loop in tube 2
    • 10. flame top of tube 2
    • 11. screw on top
    • 12. flame loop
  128. why are the openings of tubes heated?
    to kill off bacteria
  129. what is the function of the incubator
    to speed up growth
  130. what is the optimal time and temp for incubation
    • 24-48 hrs
    • 37C
  131. what does the inoculating loop do?
    used to pick up bacteria
  132. define isolated colony
    • bacterial growth
    • pimple looking
    • restricted to one place
    • forming a visible mass of growth
  133. define streak plate
    • streaking bacteria to the surface of agar
    • trying to isolate a colony
  134. describe the steps of streaking a plate
    • 1. flame loop
    • 2. screw off top of tube with pinkie finger
    • 3. flame top of tube
    • 4. put loop in tube
    • 5. flame the top of tube
    • 6. screw top back on tube
    • 7. streak section one with loop
    • 8. flame loop
    • 9. put loop in section one and drag into section 2
    • 10. etc
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    streak plate
  136. explain where the bacteria are located in a streak plate as compared to a pour plate
    • Streak plate: on surface
    • pour plate: in agar (mixed in)
  137. why are petri dishes inverted during incubation
    • prevents condensation
    • we dont want water to fall into our agar, we want it to fall into the lid
  138. what is the purpose of the streak plate method?
    to isolate a colony
  139. define pour plate
    space out bacteria enough to where we can count them
  140. define dilution
    • used in pour plating
    • dilute to get fewer cells

    decrease the number
  141. what is loop dilution
    loop full
  142. define serial dilution
    series of tubes and loop fulls
  143. describe the steps in creating a pour plate
    • 1. 1 loopful of stock culture into #1 tube
    • 2. shake/rotate
    • 3. 2 loopfuls of #1 into #2 tube, pour #1 remainings in dish
    • 4. shake/rotate
    • 5. 3 loopfuls of # 2 into #3, then pour # 2 remainings in dish
    • 6. shake/rotate
    • 7. Pour # 3 remainings in dish
  144. why do the tubes in pour plating need to be rotated back and fourth between palms?
    to mix the bacteria
  145. what is the purpose of the pour plate?
    to count cells
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Card Set:
Micro lab Exam 1
2013-06-12 16:52:44
Micro lab Exam1

Micro lab Exam 1
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