NSCI 310 2nd Midterm
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Actions that lead to a future extinction. Acts in the past that are causing current extinction.
Animals going extinct right now are caused by processes that were put in place in the early 1900's
We use 5.3 billion lbs of ______ per year. Most of which is _____and _____.
True or False
As much as 90% of pesticides never reach their target organisms.
______ are designed to kill target organisms without killing other animals.
Effects on non target species
reduces the health of a biological community
What are Farms?
The Increasing concentration level of toxins in higher trophic levels.
A change in gene frequency through time.
- Pesticide resistance
- Also known as Evolution
When you eliminate pests that are the target and maybe some that are not the target, you're clearing away competition for other organsims
Creation of new pests
Pesticides are designed to be long lasting.
Persistence and Mobility
Selective absorption by cells (ex:water soluble, fat soluble)
Refers to how a lot of toxins end up in areas where they were not even used (ex; Polar bears have pesticides in them)
Allergens, Neurotoxins, Mutagens, Teratogens, and Carcinogen.
Shuts down nervous system
Affects genetic codes, usually makes organisms infertil (Also creates super bugs)
Affects fetal development, causes birth defects, does not alter DNA
Invasive out of control cell growth
Chemicals that can cause an allergic effect, activate your immune system.
A chemical that remains in a biological community long after it had been used. Increases in concentration by Biomagnification.
Other organisms that we use.
Usually come in groups.
Takes diversity and complexity=Stability
Health of a Biological Community.
a # of different species
Species richness and evenness and genetic diversity the species that has the most Richness, 2nd most, 3rd most, etc... is the evenness of the community
Diversity of Species
Species Richness= ________
Relative abundance of species
Variety of genes from members of the same species
Makes it more likely to survive a disease or change that effects it.
Genetic diversity of a single species
A healthy Biological Community has
- Genetic Diversity
If you replenish the ______, you don't necessarily replenish the _________.
- Genetic Diversity
Emphasizes reproductive isolation
The Biological Species Concept (B.S.C.)
The problem with BSC defenition
It only works with living animals
Things look sufficiently different, so they are classified as a different species.
consistency is the key.
Morphological Species Concept
It is tough to tell if geographic variance of different species. Also, genetic tests may disagree.
Problems with Morphological Species Concept
Looking at the DNA, the genetic code
Using characteristics to define species and branches as a chart to define species.
More about the relationship than the Morphological Species Concept.
Philogenetic Species Concept
Number of species currently living on earth
- Estimate is 5 million, +/- 3 million different species.
- 1.5 million are named
When a species disappears
- It is a normal part of the process.
It is estimated that ____ percent of all living organisms are extinct.
An event, Permian Extinction
Extinction Debt, Habitat change
Over-harvesting, Invasive Species
Ways to cause Extinction
Estimated that 76% of all species died out in this period
An Event causes this
Even if perfectly adapted, organsims can still go extinct.
This has happened five times in Earth's history.
95% of all life died out.
Farming, Housing , Dams, an event are causes of what type of extinction event.
The Lake trout vs the cut throat trout. The lake trout are considered
the advocacy of the reintroduction of descendants of Pleistocene megafauna, which involves reintroducing species to areas where they became extinct in recent history (hundreds of years ago or less)
Starting from President Carter, how many species did these Presidents place on the Endangered Species list
Daily temp. and moisture conditions in a given area
Long term weather patterns
Weather happens here from earth to 18km up at the Equator. Only 8km at the poles.
From the top of the Troposphere to about 50km above the surface of Earth.
Very little air movement.
contains the ozone layer
Considered a greenhouse gas when it is in the Stratosphere.
50 to 80km from the Earth's surface
50% of solar energy striking Earth reaches the surface.
25% is absorbed by the atmosphere.
25% bounces back into space.
Is the Greenhouse Effect good or bad?
Good, but only if it in balance.
What type of air pollutants are there?
- Primary Pollutants
- Secondary Pollutants
Pollutants that are released directly into the atmosphere
Primary Air Pollutants
Pollutants that are modified into hazardous forms by interactions with the air.
Secondary Air Pollutants
Sulfur Dioxide or SO2 is a
When sulfur dioxide becomes mixed with more oxygen it becomes_________ and is now considered a ______________.
- Sulfur Trioxide
- secondary pollutant.
When sulfur trioxide becomes mixed with water it becomes ______________.
Sulfuric acid or H2 SO4
Established by the Clean Air Act of 1970.
The 7 Criteria Pollutants are
- Sulfur dioxide
- carbon monocide
- nitrogen oxides
- photo chemical oxidents
- carbon dioxide is in the running but not yet considered.
An estimated ___to ___ billion tons of ___ are released into the atmosphere every year by fossil fuel combustion.
1 or 2 billion tons per year of _______ are released into the atmosphere by deforestation, cement manufacturing, etc...
Carbon Dioxide is absorbed at a rate of 3 billion ton per year by ________.
Carbon dioxide is absorbed by the _______ at a rate of 2 billion tons per year.
Describe the water cycle
- Evaporation, condensation, and precipitation.
- This is going to be asked as a true/false question.
- read it carefully
When mountains block precipitation from getting into an area.
Low precipitation area
________ is not distributed equally over the planet
Of all the liquid H2O on earth, ____ is in the oceans and serine lakes and only ___ is fresh water
Of all the fresh water on earth, ____ is in ice and snow. ____ is in ground water and ___ is fresh surface water.
_____ of water use is domestic
___ of water use in the U.S. is done in toilet flushing
____ of water withdrawal in the U.S. is used in Agriculture.
What are the 3 ways that we use water
- Domestic use
- Industrial Use
The state of being free from illness or injury:
- A disorder of structure or function in a human, animal, or plant, esp. one that produces specific signs or symptoms or that affects a...
- A particular quality, habit, or disposition regarded as adversely affecting a person or group of people.
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