What is the function of the OSI model's physical layer (Layer 1)? Give some examples of physical layer implementations.
The physical layer defines the physical medium. It defines the media type, the connector type, and the signaling type (baseband versus broadband). This includes voltage levels, physical data rates, and maximum cable lengths. The physical layer is responsible for converting frames into electronic bits of data, which are then sent or received across the physical medium. Twisted-pair, coaxial, and fiber-optic cable operate at this level. Other implementations at this layer are repeaters/hubs.