Learning Psych - Observational Learning

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Learning Psych - Observational Learning
2013-06-02 04:04:08
Psychology Observational

Observational learning cards
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  1. Four elements of OL
    • Attention
    • Retention
    • Reproduction
    • Motivation
  2. Attention requirements (2)
    • observer must pay attention to model
    • better if the observer and the model are similar, model is attractive to the observer
  3. Retention requirements (3)
    • Observer codes watched behaviour into long term memory
    • retains info
    • remembers what they're doing
  4. Reproduction requirements (2)
    • Observer must be capable of reproducing behaviour
    • must have equipment and physical ability
  5. Motivation Requirements
    • Observer has incentive to copy models behaviour
    • Observer expects positive reinforcement for modeled behaviour
  6. Factors influencing OL (4)
    • Gender
    • Social Status
    • Relationship between model and observer
    • Consequence after models behaviour
  7. Behaviour Modification Process (6 steps)

    Part of Operant conditioning
    • Establish desired behaviour
    • Establish reinforcement 
    • Start program
    • After behaviour is established, change to intermittent schedule of reinforcement 
    • Gradually decrease reinforcement
    • Eventually the behaviour becomes self rewarding and no external reward is needed
  8. Define Escape learning
    • Learning to perform a behaviour because it prevents or terminates an aversive (event)
    • eg taking asprin
  9. Avoidance learning
    • Uses Classical Conditioning 
    • Most avoidance is maladaptive (counter-productive)
    • can be caused by phobias eg bad experience speaking in front of crowd causes avoidance of activities with public speaking
    • Avoiding these situation prevents suffering perceived consequences
    • AL is negatively reinforced
  10. Learnt Helplessness (5)
    • Giving up in averse conditions
    • learnt by repeat exposure to inescapable aversive events
    • eg shocked dog who could not escape could not later jump barrier to escape
    • humans with LH may give up, become inactive, withdrawn and depressed.
    • Believed to cause some depression
  11. Learnt helplessness deficits
    • cognitive deficit - belief that outcome is not controllable
    • motivational deficit - reduced motivation
    • Emotional deficit - Painful outcomes lead to fear and depression
  12. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy does what? (5)
    • Teaches client t understand, manage and change their thoughts and actions
    • helps client become aware of though distortions
    • Teaches coping strategies 
    • Improved awareness, introspection and evaluation
    • Reduced relapse
  13. Imprinting
    some behaviours are with us from birth, but some are learnt in an important formative period early in life eg ducks form attachment to first thing they see at birth then copy it