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6 major divisions of brain
cerebrum, diencephalon, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, cerebellum
hollow cavity becomes series of interconnected cavities
where do the neurons and glial cells of the brain come from?
The walls of the neural tube
What are the walls of the tube made of?
And inner cluster of gray matter consisting of neuronal cell bodies and synapses
Where is the cortex found?
In the cerebrum and cerebellum
Where is cerebrospinal fluid produced?
Choroid plexus which are found in the walls of the ventricles. The ventricles circulate CSF in brain
The lateral ventricles are separated by thin membrane called…
The outermost meninx
Dura mater is a fibrous membrane that provides a resilient layer around the brain. Have 2 sub-layers that divide to form a route for blood, the dural sinuses.
The dural sinuses
Drain blood away from brain and scalp
Innermost surface of the dura. Has delicate strands that extend across the subarachnoid space to the pia mater
Provides a wartery cushion surrounding the brain
Excess CSF is absorbed by the dural sinuses through extensions of arachnoid mater
Where does CSF circulate
- From the ventricles to the subarachnoid space through small apertures near the pons.
- CSF is produced at the choroid plexuses, moves around and through brain tissue, and is collected in the dural sinuses by the arachnoid granulations.
The cerebral hemisphere is divided in 5 separate lobes
Frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, insular
Where is the insular lobe?
Tucked in the lateral sulcus
Where is the cerebral cortex?
On the surface of the cerebral hemisphere, a thin layer of gray matter composed on neuron cell bodies
What is the surface of the cerebrum covered in?
- Gyri: ridges
- Suli: grooves
- Fissure: major grooves
The right and left hemispheres of cerebrum are separated by…
What separates the frontal from parietal lobes?
What divides the temporal from the frontal and parietal lobes?
- Found in the frontal lobe
- Send instructions to the motor division of the peripheral nervous system
Where is the site of the primary motor cortex?
Frontal lobe: precentral gyrus issues motor commands to the body
- Where do general senses of the body arrive?
- At the somatosensory cortex located on the postcentral gyrus of parietal lobes
Where do the special senses project to other parts of the cortex
Visual, auditory, olfactory (temporal lobe), and gustatory (insular lobe) cortex
Multimodal association areas
Found throughout the cortex and integrate inputs from multiple senses.
A region known to be important in social interactions and personality
Beneath the cortex is…
White matter: tracts of axons that make connections and allow the passage of information to and from the cortex. Bundles of fibers can be: commissural, projection, and association fibers.
Connect the cortex to the cortex of the opposite hemisphere. Vast majority cross the corpus callosum
Connect cortex to the lower brain regions or spinal cord. Control muscles and relay senses to/from body
Connect cortex to adjacent regions of the same hemisphere
Lying close to the ventricles are clusters of gray matter which regulate movement initiation and coordinated control of antagonistic muscle pairs
What results in the over-activity of basal nuclei?
Parkinson’s disease. Have uncontrolled muscle contraction of both sides of joints. (resting tremors and having difficulty initiating movements)
The region of the brain most affected by Parkinson’s
Midbrain which regulates activity of basal nuclei
Diencephalon gives rise to which regions
Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Epithalamus
Relay station of the brain, site of synapse for sensory pathways. Signals are routed from spinal cord or lower brain regions to the appropriate regions of cerebral cortex
- Contains several nuclei regulating
- Autonomic control: governs activity of autonomic nuclei in the brainstrem
- Emotional center: initiates “gut reaction” to various stimuli including hunger, thirst, sex, anger
- Body temperature control
- Sleep cycle control
- Pituitary control: releases hormones from pituitary gland
- Develops into pineal body and choroid plexus
- Pineal body: produces melatonin which prepares body for sleep
- Choroid plexus: produces CSF
- Midbrain nucleus
- Red nucleus: coordinates gross limb movement
- Substantia nigra: controls the basal nuclei. Dopamine-releasing neurons degenerate in Parkinson’s disease leaving basal nuclei unregulated
Large bundles of axons containing projection fibers that permit communication b/w hemispheres and lower parts of CNS
Nuclei that initiate visual reflexes and coordination of head movement when tracking moving object
Nuclei on posterior midbrain that receive auditory info and coordinate reflexive action in response to sounds
The inferior and superior colliculi
- Contains mostly tracts of white matter
- Tracts arriving at pons enter cerebellum through large bundles: cerebellar peduncle
Receives info from the cerebral hemispheres about its intent to initiate movements. Also receive info from proprioceptors
Cerebellum calculates coordinated movements of the body
White matter of cerebellum
Third lobe of the cerebellum
- Nuclei send and receive info for the autonomic nervous system
- Cardiovascular centers, respiratory center, various autonomic centers
Structure on medulla that contain large corticospinal tracts that contain axons directing voluntary movements of the body
Limbic system includes which structures?
Cerebral cortex, basal nuclei, thalamus, and hypothalamus which coordinate to recognize social cues and elicit emotions and memory
A loosely organized series of nuclei extending throughout the brainstem
- Reticular formation: filters sensory info on its way to the cortex
- Reticular activating system (RAS) keeps form conscious thought the multitude of stimuli
Cranial nerve 1
Olfactory nerve. Extension of the cerebral hemisphere
Cranial nerve 2
Optic nerve. Carries info from the retina of the eye to the optic chiasm. Then the optic tracts carry info to the brain
Cranial nerves memory
- Mnemonic to remember 1st letter of nerves: Oh, once one takes the anatomy final, a very good vacation sounds heavenly!
- Mnemonic to remember sensory, motor, or both
- Some say marry money, but my brother says big business makes money
- I. Olfactory: sensory from olfactory epithelium
- II. Optic: sensory from retina
- III. Oculomotor: motor to most extrinsic eye muscles
- IV. Trochlear: motor to extrinsic eye muscle
- V. Trigeminal: motor to chewing muscles; sensory from face, oral, & nasal cavities
- VI. Abducens: motor to extrinsic eye muscle
- VII. Facial: motor to facial expression muscles; sensory from taste buds
- VIII. Vestibulocochlear (Acoustic): sensory from inner ear
- IX. Glossopharyngeal: motor to pharynx; sensory from taste buds
- X. Vagus: motor and sensory to thoracic & abdominal organs
- XI. Spinal accessory : motor to neck muscles
- XII. Hypoglossal: motor to tongue muscles