The conceptualization of psychological disorders as diseases that, like physical diseases, have biological causes, defined symptoms, and possible cures.
A classification system that describes the features used to diagnose each recognized mental disorder and indicates how the disorder can be distinguished from other, similar problems.
DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Ed, Text Revision)
The co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual.
Suggests that a person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress
The class of mental disorder in which anxiety is the predominant feature.
A disorder characterized by chronic excessive worry accompanied by 3 or more of the following symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
Disorders characterized by marked, persistent, and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities, or situations.
A disorder that involves an irrational fear of a particular object or situation that markedly interferes with an individual's ability to function.
A disorder that involves an irrational fear of being publicly humiliated or embarrassed.
The idea that people are instinctively predisposed toward certain fears.
A disorder characterized by the sudden occurrence of multiple psychological and physiological symptoms that contribute to a feeling of stark terror.
An extreme fear of venturing into public places.
A disorder in which repetitive, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and ritualistic behaviors (compulsions) designed to fend off those thoughts interfere significantly with an individual's functioning.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Mental disorders that have mood disturbance as their predominant feature.
A disorder characterized by a severely depressed mood that lasts 2 weeks or more and is accompanied by feelings of worthlessness and lack of pleasure, lethargy, and sleep and appetite disturbances.
Major depressive disorder
A disorder that involves the same symptoms as in depression only less severe, by the symptoms last longer, persisting for at least 2 years.
A moderately depressed mood that persists for at least 2 years and is punctuated by periods of major depression.
Depression that involves recurrent depressive episodes in a seasonal pattern.
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
The idea that individuals who are prone to depression automatically attribute negative experiences to causes that are internal (i.e., their own fault), stable (i.e. unlikely to change), and global (i.e., widespread).
An unstable emotional condition characterized by cycles of abnormal, persistent high mood (mania) and low mood (depression).
A condition in which normal cognitive processes are severely disjointed and fragmented, creating significant disruptions in memory, awareness, or personality that can vary in length from a matter of minutes to many years.
The presence within an individual of 2 or more distinct identities that at different times take control of the individual's behavior.
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
The sudden loss of memory for significant personal information.
The sudden loss of memory for one's personal history, accompanied by an abrupt departure from home and the assumption of a new identity.
A disorder characterized by the profound disruption of basic psychological processes; a distorted perception of reality; altered or blunted emotion; and disturbances in thought, motivation, and behavior.
A patently false belief system, often bizarre and grandiose, that is maintained in spite of its irrationality.
A false perceptual experience that has a compelling sense of being real despite the absence of external stimulation.
A severe disruption of verbal communication in which ideas shift rapidly and incoherently from one to another unrelated topic.
Behavior that is inappropriate for the situation or ineffective in attaining goals, often with specific motor disturbances.
Grossly disorganized behavior
A marked decrease in all movement or an increase in muscular rigidity and overactivity.
Emotional and social withdrawal; apathy; poverty of speech; and other indications of the absence or insufficiency of normal behavior, motivation, and emotion.
The idea that schizophrenia involves an excess of dopamine activity.
Disorder characterized by deeply ingrained, inflexible patterns of thinking, feeling, or relating to others or controlling impulses that cause distress or impaired functioning.
A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood.