Microbiology

Card Set Information

Author:
mattnjaneal
ID:
221594
Filename:
Microbiology
Updated:
2013-05-30 15:05:58
Tags:
prokaryotes
Folders:

Description:
chapter four
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user mattnjaneal on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. prokaryotes
    lack a membrane bound mucleus and organelles; about 1/10 the size of a eukaryote
  2. genome
    single chromosome, a loop of double stranded DNA
  3. 6 different types of prokaryotes
    • 1. proteobacteria
    • 2. firmicutes
    • 3. actinobacteria
    • 4. cyanobacteria
    • 5. chlamydiae
    • 6. spirochaetes
  4. proteobacteria
    gram - bacteria, includes many pathogens.  ex:  escherichia, vibrio, salmonella, neisseria, yersinia
  5. firmicutes
    firm skin, gram + bacteria.  ex:  streptococcus, staphylococcus, clostridium, bacillus, mycoplasma
  6. actinobacteria
    soil borne, filamentus, resemble fungus; produce antibiotics.  ex:  streptomyces & actinomyces.  myc=fungus (but not a fungus it's a bacteria)
  7. cyanobacteria
    photosynthetic; formerly called blue green algae
  8. chlamydiae
    1/2 the size of rickettsiae, most are pathogens, obligate intracellular parasites
  9. spirochaetes
    helical cells, corkscrew.  ex:  syphilus & lyme disease
  10. archaea
    primitive, harsh living conditions, not pathogens
  11. 2 types of archaea
    • 1. euryarcheota
    • 2. crenarcheota
  12. euryarcheota
    methanogens (produce methane) extreme halophiles (salt loving) hypothermophiles (above 80'c), thermoacidophiles (heat and low pH)
  13. crenarcheota
    hyperthermophiles, hot springs and ocean vents
  14. 8 prokaryotic cell shapes
    • 1. bacillus - rod shaped
    • 2. coccus - spherical
    • 3. coccobacillus - between rod shaped and spherical
    • 4. vibrio - curved bacillus
    • 5. square - tile like, very rare
    • 6. spirillum - rigid spirals
    • 7. spirochetes - flexible helix
    • 8. pleomorphic - vary in shape
  15. 6 prokaryotic cell arrangement
    • 1. single - not connected to each other
    • 2. pairs - diploid
    • 3. tetrads - four
    • 4. sarcina - cube
    • 5. cluster
    • 6. chains - strepto
  16. pilus
    appendage used for attachment, shorter than flagella; composed of pilin protein w/ adhesives attached (sticky)
  17. 2 types of pilus
    • 1. sex pilus - bacterial conjugation, mating
    • 2. fimbriae - attach cells to each other or the environment.  E coli use fimbriae to attach to urethra and migrate to bladder
  18. flagella
    bacterial motility
  19. 3 parts of flagella structure
    • 1. basal body - anchor to cell wall & membrane
    • 2. hook - right angle bend, rotates 360'
    • 3. filament - thread that extends out from cell, composed of flagellin protein
  20. run and tumble movement
    • run - counterclockwise, going straight
    • tumble - clockwise cause them to spin, change direction
  21. chemotaxis
    movement toward or away from a chemical
  22. aerotaxis
    move to favorable O2 concentrate
  23. phototaxis
    sim to optimal light intensity
  24. arrangement of flagella
    • monotrichous - single flagellum
    • amphitrichous - flagellum on both ends
    • lophotrichous - cluster on one end
    • peritrichous - surface covered
  25. polar flagella
    on end of cell
  26. endoflagella
    periplasmic flagella, spirochestes have flagella inside of outer sheath, create "wiggle" movement
  27. glycocalyx
    • polysaccharides outside of cell wall, gel-like
    • protects cell from dessication (drying out)
    • attachment
    • appear moist (colonies), glisten
  28. 2 different types of glycocalyx
    • capsule - organized, gelantinous, covalently bound to cell wall, virulence factor for pathogens. ex:  strep pneumonia - with capsule = sickness, without capsule = NO sickness
    • slime layer - diffuse & irregular, tangled polysaccharide layer, sticky, biofilm
  29. cell envelope
    the cell wall and cell membrane
  30. cell wall
    rigid, protect cell from lysis (withstand turgor pressure), maintain cell shape
  31. gram + cell wall
    thick layer of peptidoglycan with teichoic & lipoteichoic acid embedded in it
  32. peptidoglycan
    macromolecule of NAG & NAM
  33. transpeptide chain
    join NAM's, a lot of antibiotics don't let this happen (used on gram + bacteria)
  34. teichoic acid
    "wall", attaches to NAM covalently, if it extend to cell membrane it is called lipoteichoic acid, may bind and regulate cations in/out, cell growth
  35. gram - cell wall
    • made up of two layers
    •      * peptidoglycan
    •      * outer membrane
    •     
  36. peptidoglycan
    thin layer sandwiched between membranes
  37. periplasm
    fluid between outer membrane and peptidoglycan
  38. 3 types of proteins embedded in phospholipid bilayer of outer membrane of gram - cell wall
    • 1. porin protein
    • 2. lipoproteins
    • 3. lipopolysaccharides 
  39. porin protein
    transport
  40. lipoprotein
    anchor the outer membrane to peptidoglycan
  41. lipopolysaccharides (LPS)
    • extend out from outer membrane
    •      * lipid A - anchor, pyrogen
    •      * core polysaccharide
    •      * O side chain (antigen) - your immune system "see" this.  ex: Ecoli O157:H7
  42. acid fast cell wall
    • gram + cell wall w/ a high lipid content
    • mycolic acid (waxy, tough to penetrate when staining)
    • do not gram stain
    • ex:  mycobacterium tuberculosis
  43. cell membrane
    • selectively permeable
    • protective
    • fluid mosaic model - not a static structure, can change to meet cell needs
  44. cytoplasm
    fluid & dissolved substances
  45. ribosomes
    site of protein synthesis
  46. nucleoid
    dense region containing genome
  47. genome
    • single chromosome
    • 1N
    • haploid
    • single loop of double stranded DNA
  48. plasmid
    extra loop of d.s. DNA, bonus genes for the cell, may include antibiotic resistance, exchanged during conjugation (mating)
  49. 2 functions of inclusions
    storage or specialized
  50. inclusions with storage function
    • 1. glycogen - store energy; carbon source
    • 2. volutin - (metachromatic) granules - store phosphate
    • 3. poly B hydroxy butyrate - store energy, carbon source
  51. inclusions with a specialized function
    • 1. chlorosome - pigment for photosynthesis
    • 2. magnetosome - composed of iron oxide, gram - cells, navigation
    • 3. gas vacoules - rigid compartment, bouyancy
  52. endospore
    dormant, highly resistant to environment stressors, withstand high heat, drying, cold, UV radiation
  53. sporulation
    formation of endospores, environmental trigger
  54. core of endospore
    calcium enters & water exits to dehydrate deposit dipicocolinic acid to stabilize the DNA & proteins
  55. germination
    spore transforms to a viable vegetative cell
  56. 2 step process of germination
    • 1. activation - brief exposure to heat or certain chemicals (reversible)
    • 2. outgrowth - take up water, no turning back, transforms into vegetative cell, susceptible

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview