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What methods can be used to control secondary variables?
 Elimination  completely remove the variable
 Constancy  ensure variable is constant for all participants
 Convert variable to an IV
 Randomisation  smear unknown/uncontrollable variables across sample
 Statistical adjustment  use change scores (pre and post), or ANCOVA

List 10 sources of experimental invalididty
 Retroactive history  something that changes during course of experiment
 Regression to the mean  extreme scores on a pretest that move closer to the mean posttest
 Repeated testing  learning or sensitisation effects
 Proactive history  subject variables
 Interaction effects  effects of earlier treatment still present during subsequent treatments
 Loss of participants  of concern if due to treatment
 Maturation  important for studies that run over long periods of time
 Experimenter bias
 Errors in measurement of DV
 Errors due to inappropriate

What are possible types of problems related to generalisation?
 Subjects  how representative of the general population are they?
 Settings  laboratory vs field/natural setting
 Experimenter  influence on DV due to interpersonal skills and mode of interaction
 DV  validity of operationalisation, measures

What is the pvalue?
Probability that differences between means is due to chance alone if the null hypothesis is true

What is the relationship between F and t when there are only 2 groups?
F = t^{2}

