Micro FINAL: Units 1-3 **KEY TERMS**

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Micro FINAL: Units 1-3 **KEY TERMS**
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2013-05-30 03:35:07
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Micro FINAL: Units 1-3 **KEY TERMS**
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  1. Bacteria (group)
    --> pro/eukaryotes?
    --> Shapes?
    --> cell walls?
    --> Reproduction?
    --> how do they eat?
    • Unicellular prokaryotes (means DNA is NOT in a nuclear membrane)
    • Either Baccillus (rodlike), coccus (sphere), spiral (corkscrewed)
    • Cell walls: Peptidoglycan (carb + prootein complex)
    • Reproduce by binary fission-divide into two equal cells
    • Some can photosynthesize, while others get food inorganically.
  2. Archaea (group)
    -->pro/eukaryotic?
    --peptidoglycan?
    --> what are three groups?
    --> pathogenic?
    • Prokaryotic-No peptidoglycan
    • 3 groups: methanogens, extreme halophilles (salt lovers) and extreme thermophiles (hotsprings)
    • **NOT pathogenic
  3. Fungi (group)

    --> pro/euk?
    --> cell walls?
    --> uni/multi cell?
    --> 2 types and characteristics?
    • Eukayotes
    • Uni or multicellular
    • cell walls: chitin
    • yeast: unicellullar
    • mold: reproduce either sexually or asexually
  4. Protozoa:

    --> Pro/euk?
    --> uni/multi cell?
    --> how do they move?
    --> how do they survive?
    • Unicelluar
    • Eukaryotic
    • Move with: flagella, pseudopods, cillia
    • environments: free living or parasitic
    • Some can photosynthesize (euglena)
  5. Algae:

    --> pro/euk?
    -->Uni/multi cell
    --> cell wall:
    --> most common where?
    --> how do they help envir?
    --examples
    • Photosyn. Eukaryotes
    • usually unicelluar
    • cell wall: cellulose (carb)
    • Most found: in fresh water, salt water, and soil

    ex: spyrogyra, diatoms,

    **Produce O2 and carbs for other organisms.
  6. Viruses:

    --> Nucleus memb?
    --> euk/pro?
    --> where do they reproduce?
    • Accellular o.0
    • Either only have DNA or RNA in a lipid membrane (neither euk/pro)
    • Reproduce in hosts
  7. Three Domains & 4 kingdoms:
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
    • Eukarya
    • 1.Animalia-Helminths
    • 2. Protista: protozoa & algae
    • 3. Fungi
    • 4. Plants (no microbes)
  8. Diphtheria:
    --> microbe
    --> symptoms
    --> vaccines
    Upper respiratory Bacterial infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae (gram positive, non-endospore-forming rod,cell arranged: palisades)

    • Symptoms:
    • -Begins with sore throat and fever, neck swells
    • -often affects throat(pharynx) and larynx (voicebox)creates a pseudomembrane of fibrin, dead tissue and bacterial cells that clogs throat/air passage

    • Vaccines:  
    • DTap Vaccine: for children, "D" stands for Diphtheria toxoid (inactivated toxin) that allows body to make antibodies against diphtheria.   
    • --> "Toxoid vaccine" based on inactivated exotoxin

    • Tdap booster: teens and adults (combined with tetanus shots)
  9. Pertussis
    -->Microbe
    --> transport
    -->Diagnosis
    caused by Bacterium "Bordetella pertussis"':obligatory aerobic, gram negative

    Whooping cough; damages cilliated cells in respiratory system-paralyzes the cilliated cells-cause inflammation-impairs immune response

    Transportation: respiratory droplets (coughing/sneezing)


    Diagnosis: culturing bacteria (swab and identify)
  10. The stages of Pertussis:
    First Stage (catarrhal stage) resembles common cold- coughing, sneezing, low fever (100 deg F)

    Second Stage (Paroxysmal stage): severe prolonged coughing fits, may make "whoop" sounds; difficult to cough up phlegm when cilliated cells are destroyed.

    Third stage: coughing eventually become less frequent and less severe (convalescence)
  11. Prokaryotes: distinguishing characteristics
    • 1. Dna has no enclosed membrane
    • 2. lack membrane enclosed organelles
    • 3. cell walls are complex polysacharide peptidoglycan
    • 4. Divide with binary fission
  12. Eukaryotes
    • 1.Has nucleus to sep dna from cytoplasm
    • 2. have many membrane enclosed organeles
    • 3. chemically simple cell walls.
    • 4. cell division: mitosis.
  13. Prokaryote vs Eukaryote Structures (image)
  14. Endospores (70. 95-97)
    -purpose and characteristics
    -endospore components
    -locations
    -example:
    Resting structures formed by some bacteria, allows for survival during adverse environmental conditions (dry conditions)

    • Characteristics:
    • very little water
    • resistant to heat, uv rays and disinfectants

    • Components: cytoplasm, plasma membrane, ribosomes, peptidoglycan, spore coat (protein) and dipicolinic acid

    Locations: terminal(very end), central and subterminal (almost end)

    ex: clostridium tetani
  15. Sporulation:

    (germination?)
    • 1. DNA is replicated
    • 2. Endospore forms when plasma membrane, peptidoglycan layer, and spore coat surround DNA
    • 3. endopsore is related as vegative cell disintegrates

    "germination": return of endospore to it's vegetative state
  16. EPS: extracellular polymeric substance
    a glycocalyx that helps cells in biofilm attach to target environment and allow bacteria to survive
  17. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) & RER
    • Nuclear envelop attached to Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    • --surface for chem reactions and transport network.
    • --RER: protein synthesis/transport
  18. Golgi complex:
    • flattened sacs (cisterns); fuctions in membrane formation & protein secretions
    • Peptidoglycan:
    • polymer consisting of NAG (N-acetylglucosamine) & NAM (N-acetylmuramic acid) and short amino acid chains; penicillin interferes with this wall
  19. Gram Negative cells (chemical structure)
    • -MUCH more complex-Thin layer of peptidoglycan
    • -LPS (lipopolysaccaride)
    • -Porins
    • -Periplasms with chemoreceptors: gel like fluid between outer membrane and the plasma membrane
    • -NO teichoic acids;

    • OUTER membrane: contains LPS, lipoprotiens and phospholipids
    • --gives wall strong neg charge
    • --provides barrier to antibiotics, digestive enzymes,and dyes
    • --Porins: channels allow nucleotides, amino acids
  20. Pili and Fimbriae
    Pili: straight, hairlike, gene transfering

    Fimbria: straight hairlike for attachment ex: neisseria gonorrheae
  21. Biofilms
    -defn
    -found?
    -advantages?
    -Community of bacteria; form at liquid-solid interfaces; slime layer (extracellular polymeric substance-EPS:helps bacteria attach to surfaces)

    -protected from antibodies and antibiotics; wbc's create inflammation

    -found: teeth, rock in a pond, pet's waterdish

    • advantages of biofilm:
    • prevents dehydration
    • share nutrients
    • protection from host immune system (antibodies or wbc phagocytosis)
  22. Four groups of biological molecules?
    • 1. carbs
    • 2. Lipids
    • 3. Proteins
    • 4. Nucleic acids
  23. Carbohydrates
    Functions: energy source/storage, carbon source and part of cell structure

    • -Composed of C,H,O
    • -Hydrophillic (waterloving)

    -Sacchardies

    -Monosaccharides: hexose, pentose

    -Disaccharides: lactose (glucose+galactose) and sucrose/canesugar (glucose and fructose)

    -Polysaccharides: cellulose (plant/algae cell walls), starch (energy storage), petidoglycan (bacterial cell walls)
  24. Lipids functions and structure::
    1. triglycerides
    2. fatty acids
    3. saturated vs. unsaturated
    4. phosoplipids
    5. sterols
    Fn: energy storage, cell memb components

    Structure: C,O,H and sometimes P & S

    -HydroPHOBIC (dont dissolve)

    Triglycerides: 3 carbon glycerol + 3 Hydroxyl (OH) groups

    Fatty acids: C-H chain + carboxyl group at the end

    saturated fatty acids: only single bonds b/w carbons (fats: butter and shortening)

    Unsaturated: double or triple bonds give it a kink (oils)

    Phosoplipids: two fatty acids + glycerol + phosphate group + "R" group (hydrophillic)

    Sterols: 4 connected carbon rings, not composed of fatty acids, hydrophoics
  25. PROTIENS
    FN: cell structure (flagella, cytoskeleton, enzymes, chem signals)

    exotoxins: transporters in cell membranes (botulism toxin)

    • Amino acid: building block of proteins:
    • --> amino group (NH2)
    • --> carboxyl group (COOH)
    • --> R group connected to central carbon

    Peptide bonds: created by dehydration synt. b/w 2 amino acides; spacial type of covalent bond

    Peptide: short chain of amino acids; Polypeptides (structure: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary sturcture)
  26. Nucleic Acids:
    DNA: genetic code/template fro protein making

    RNA: helps make proteins

    • Nucleodtide has 3 parts:
    • 1. 5C sugar (ribose/deoxyribose)
    • 2. Phosphate backbone(PO42-)
    • 3. Nitrogenous base (can form H bonds)

    • DNA bases: Adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine
    • RNA bases: uracil instead of thyamine

    ATP (adenosine triphosphate): function as energy "currency"; stores and provides chemical energy, made out of ribose, adenine and 3 phosphates linked together.
  27. Psychrophile
    • Likes 0-20 deg C
    • 15= optimum

    • -cold-loving microbes
    • -found in oceans/polar regions.
    • -unlikely to spoil food
  28. Psychrotroph
    Grow slowly at low temps but optimum from 20-30

    -Responsible for food spoilage; grow well at refrigerator temps though cold temps slow down reproductive rates.
  29. Mesophile
    Optimum: 20-40 deg temps "middle" (room)

    • -moderate-temperature loving microbes
    • -live in terrestrial/aquatic areas, plants & animals
    • - may cause disease: likes body temp of host
  30. Thermophile
    Optimum: 40 degs Celsius and higher

    • - heat-loving microbes
    • -endospores: fromed by these bacteria; may survive heat treatments given to canned foods.
    • -found: hot spring run offs; compost piles
    • ex: Thermus aquaticus: yellowstone
  31. Hyperthermophile
    Extrememophiles!

    • Optimum: Higher than 80 deg C (boiling/acidic water)
    • Domain: Archaea; different from bacteria (don't denature)

    ex: Sulfolobus (yellowstone)
  32. Protozoa Characteristics:
    --> importance?
    --> classification of medically imp protozoa by movement method:
    Single celled; lack cell walls; many are motile and have complex life cycles "animal like"

    -Heterotrophs: use organic source of carbon

    Importance: They are decomposers; help digestion in cattle but some are pathogenic.

    classification of medically imp protozoa by movement method: Cillia, Pseudopods (amoebas), Flagella or no specific method of movement
  33. Asexual Reproduction of Protozoa
    --> two types?
    Fission: Mitosis + Cytokinesis: 1 cell divides into two so that offspring are completely identical to parent

    Schizogony: One cell divides into many cells-multiple divisions (identical)
  34. Sexual Reproduction of Protozoa:
    what organisms do this?
    Conjugation: paramecium do this: offspring are different from parents.

    --> development of male and female gametocytes (done by Plasmodium species)

    --> Occurs in definite host: sexually reproducing stage of parasite.
  35. Flagellates Example 1: Trichomoniasis

    Microbe:
    Signs & symptoms
    Diagnostic methods
    Prevention
    Example: Trichomonas vaginalis (-Causes disease of the reproductive system (STD) called "trichomoniasis")

    • Microbe Info: One-celled pathogenic protozoan

    • -Trophozoite is infectious
      : travels from host to host; men can be affected but unknown w/ 8 million infections yearly in N America

    • Signs & symptoms:
    • Men: irritation inside penis, mild discharge, slight burning during urination.
    • Women: Painful uritnation, vaginal itching/irritation, greenish yellow discharge, intercourse discharge

    Diagnose: Microscopy/wet mount; cervical smears

    Treatment: Oral antibiotics

    Prevention: Condom Use
  36. Flagellates Example 2: Giardiasis

    Microbe:
    Signs & symptoms ... add more
    Transmission
    Diagnostic methods
    Prevention

    Giardiasis is caused by the flagellate: Giardia lamblia

    -Intestinal parasite (small int)

    -Symptoms: Greasy stool, gas, diarrhea, loss of appetite, blood in utrine, loose/watery stool, bloating/burping/excessive gass. Can appear 1-2 weeks AFTER infection and maybe wane cyclically.

    Transmitted: contaminated water/food, recreational, drinking water... Campers drinking untreated water at risk; diaper changers(stool).

    • Cysts: responsible for disease spread, must remove cysts by filtering or boiling water.
    • --> Dogs/cats can carry the parasite (distribute)
    • --> chlorine doesn't kill cysts.

    Diagnosis: OP exam, fluorescence microscopy

    Treatment is available

    Prevention: Filter/Boil water, good sanitation.
  37. Apicomplexa: Example 1- Toxoplasmosis (ch 23)
    Toxoplasma gondii causes Toxoplasmosis- disease of blood and lymphatic vessels

    • Symptoms: flu-like symptoms, muscle aches
    • Normal people: body aches, swollen lymph nodes, headache, fever, fatigue and sorethroat
    • Immunocompromised: Headache, confusion, poor coordination, seizures, lung problems resembling TB or Pneumona

    • Transmission: Rodents= "Intermediate Host" & Cats="Definite host"; Human ingestion of oocysts while in contact with cat feces/contact with soil or contaminated meat. Can hid in eyes, brains, muscles...
    • --> affects brain and eyes of immunocompromised people; causes stillbirth and vision problems in infected pregnant mom.

    Diagnose: Serological testing

    Treatment only for active form

    Prevention: wear gloves when dealing with cat litter, cook meat well.
  38. Apicomplexa Example 2: Cryptosporidiosis

    Cryptosporidiosis Caused by "Cryptosporidium hominis"

    Signs/Symptoms: asymptomatic, cause acute diarrhea that can last weeks, or watery diarrhea w/ mucus. Also can be stomach pain, low fever, nausea, dehydration

    • -Transmission: By oocysts; VERY contagious person to person. Contaminated water, food, soil or anything w/ infected human/animal feces. Pools, Tap water, certain water parks are source of outbreaks.
    • --> serious disease for immunocompromised people

    -Diagnosis: Fluorescense Microscopy

    -Treatment: oral rehydration; salt solution

    -Prevention: Filter/boil water

    -Location: US cities
  39. Malaria: Symptoms and Microbe info:
    Life threatening disease in humans caused by Plasmodium parasite species (protozoans); Plasmodium falciparium is most severe.

    • Symptoms: Fever, chills, headache , flu-like symptoms or periodically get sweats two weeks after bite ; timing of symptoms depends upon Plasmodium species.
    • --> Flu: often confused with Malaria
    • --> Life Threathening: Plasmodium can destroy RBC's and clog capillaries that lead to brain/other organs; US patients don't get prompt service due to misdiagnosis b/c it's uncommon here.
    • --> vector still exists in US; possible for Malaria outbreaks

    Microbe info: Plasmodium reproduce in human liver (dormant after initial illness FOR UP TO ONE YEAR; hence us travelers cannot donate blood for one year), enters RBC (eventually burst) and infects next mosquito that bites infected person.
  40. Malaria: Transmission, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, Location, and current Research/Concern

    Practice Q: Why is it so difficult to eradicate malaria?
    Transmission: Mosquitos are the vectors; transfers sporozoite form.

    Diagnosis:Getting prompt medical attention if the person is a traveler; look Plasmodium in RBC of blood smear; "Rapid Diagnostic Test" (RDT): detects antigen in 15 mins or less.

    • Treatment:
    • 1.NO FDA approved vaccine yet;
    • 2. Quinine (more resisted by Plamodium recently)
    • 3. "Artemisinin combination therapy" (ACT): act of diff biochem pathways in parasite-recommended for countries w/ developed plasmodium resistance to previous drugs
    • **shouldn't be used alone b/c there is a chance of developing resistance**

    --USA got rid of Malaria by wide-spread use of DDT insecticide.

    Prevention: Bed nets & clothing SOAKED in insecticide; antimalarial meds (not 100 percent effective); DEET insect repllent and sleeping in w/screens/bednets/AC

    Location: 109 countries. Including Africa, Asia & South America. (Not in US)

    • Current Research/concerns: Malaria has been increasing due to Global warming since vectors enjoy warm temps
    • --Malaria increases HIV viral load in blood o.0

    • Two types of Fungi:
    • 1. yeast: divide how, example

    • 2. Mold: Mycellium/septa? Dimorphism?
    • Yeast and Mold

    • Yeast: typically unicellular, divide by fission (into equal halves) or budding (unequally; forms by protuberance on outer surface of parent cell)
    • ex: Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Budding yeast in bread& beer

    • Mold:
    • Multicellular; have Hyphae: filaments made of chains of cells (NOT strepto).
    • -Mycelium: entire visible mass of Hyphae.
    • -Septa: separations b/w nuclei of hyphae, no cell wall
    • Dimorphism: Two growth forms, strange because two different cell shapes can have same DNA
  41. Three types of medically important fungi:
    • Phylum...
    • 1. Zygomycota
    • 2. Ascomycota
    • 3.Basidiomycota
  42. Phylum Zygomycota and examples?
    Asexual reproduction: Sporangium (sac) bursts and produces sporangiospores

    Sexual reproduction: Requires mating/meiosis to produce zygospores

    Phylum Zygomycota Example: Rhizopus (black bread mold)
  43. Phylum Ascomycota:
    -Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
    -Examples for each?
    -"Sac" fungi

    -Asexual reproduction: conidiophore produces conidia (dust like spores that float in air)

    -Sexual reproduction: Requires mating/meiosis, Ascospores produced in ascus (a saclike structure)

    **examples: Aspergillus (Asexual) and Truffles (sexual), Morel
  44. Phylum Basidiomycota

    -what kind of fungi, what does it produce?
    -How are they formed?
    -example?
    -"club fungi"; produces mushroom

    -Basidiospores formed externally on a base pedestal called a basidium.

    -ex: Mushroom; Amanita (toxic mushroom)
  45. Subcutaneous Fungal Infections
    example: sporotrichosis
    • -sporotrichosis in US: subcutaneous infection affecting gardeners/famers; small ulcers/lesions on hand
    • -soil organisms (growth environment)--> gardening w/o gloves, microbes can enter wound and cause lesions
    • -can be treated
    • -prevention: wear gloves when dealing with soil
  46. VALLEY FEVER: Microbe: classification, location and how is it spread...
    • Microbe: "Coccidioides immitis" which causes coccidioidomycosis aka Valley Fever; dimorphic (two forms: yeast & mold)
    • - classified in Phylum Ascomycota

    - Spread by arthrospores (hyphae-chain which breaks and is picked up in wind) in wind and dust which is then inhaled /: anyone can get the disease

    -Activities that increase risk: Being outside (dust in air) dir tbiking, construction, earthquake

    -Location: Found in dry soil in American southwest, central/Southern Cali, Arizona, Northern Mexico. Mostly in Central valley
  47. Valley Fever Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment:
    • Possible Signs & Symptoms:Fever, Headache, cough, sore throat, chest pain (flu-like)
    • -serious: meningitis
    • -Rash or Joint pain like stiff neck

    • Diagnosis and Treatment:
    • -Serological test to detect antibodies (ONLY detects exposure doe)
    • -Xrays
    • -Bronchoscopy: view trachea and bronchi
    • -Surgery of nodule in lung, then culture or use microscopy
    • -Treatment available: takes 6 months to recover
  48. HISTOPLASMOSIS:

    - Microbe
    - Location
    - Similiar to what other diseases?
    - Where does it begin and can it spread?
    Microbe: -"Histoplasma capsulatum": a dimorphic fungus that is found in soil, bird/bat doppings (nutrient rich soil)

    -Location: Midwest US: Mississippi & Ohio Rivers (endemic)

    • Airborne spores are inhaled; can cause sever disease beginning in lungs and even spread to lymp nodes (also disseminated)
    • --> gives Flu-like/TB like symptoms (take TB test: turns out negative to eliminate)
    • -->see how long it takes to go away: TB doesn't really go away
  49. HISTOPLASMOSIS: Diagnosis Methods & Treatment
    • Diagnosis Methods:
    • -Serological test to detect antibodies (ONLY detects exposure doe)
    • -take a tissue sample for culturing (blood, lymph node, lung or mucus)
    • -Xrays
    • -Bronchoscopy: view trachea and bronchi
    • -Surgery of nodule in lung, then culture or use microscopy

    Treatment: available
  50. Opportunistic fungal infections:

    and four examples?
    Targets people with something that is altered in immune system; not normal healthy people (HIV+, Diabetics)

    • Examples:
    • 1. Candidiasis
    • 2. Pneumonia
    • 3. Mucormycosis
    • 4. Aspergillosis
  51. MUCORMYCOSIS
    caused by: Mucor or Rhizopus (breadmold) (upper respiratory)

    -opportunistic: Immunosuppressed patients at risk: (HIV--> Lung infections) and Diabetic patients at risk

    -falls under what Phylum: Zygomycota (Rhizopus)
  52. ASPERGILLOSIS
    -found where?
    -oppurtunistic how?
    caused by Aspergillus (falls under Phylum Ascomycota)

    -Opportunistic

    -Fungus found on decaying vegetation: veggies in Fridge

    -causes lung infection in HIV positive patients
  53. Tuberculosis:
    -caused by?
    -transmission mode:
    -Infection
    -Signs/Symptoms
    -Active TB locations
    -Mantoux Skin Test
    -Diagnosis and Immunization
    -Drug Treatments..
    -Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis; affects lower respiratory (lungs)

    -Transmitted: airborne respiratory droplets (coughing, sneezing) from close contact

    -Infection: 1.Macrophages phagocytose Mycobacterium tuberculosis; 2.if the bacteria isn't destroyed=> Latent infection (not infection, dormant version of TB-still cough up sputum but no symptoms). 3. Active infection: bacteria is transmittable w/ sputum. 4. Bacteria eventually spreads to other body organs /:

    Signs/Symptoms: 90% have mild signs: fatigue, weight loss and 10% have noticeable symptoms: cough, fever, chest pain; bloody sputum and night sweats

    Active TB locations: South America, Africa, Asia, E. Europe. In US: homeless, health clinics, and prisions

    • Mantoux Skin Test: Detects exposure to TB
    • -Inject PPD:Purified protein derivative from Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • - Host's T Cells immune response determins pos/neg results; positive may mean prior vaccination, prev illness, present disease ==> requires x-ray test in addition

    Diagnosis: Acid-Fast staining (mycolic acid retains carbolfuchsin) or sputum culture

    • Immunization: No effective vaccine (prevents world elimination)
    • --> "DOTS" (directly observed treatment, short-course): doctor makes sure patient takes meds to prevent drug resistance
    • --> current TB control: "Stop TB strategy" which continues DOT

    DRUG TREATMENT: There are four drugs that you take at once. In order to avoid developing any resistance.
  54. Genetics: Replication, Transcription, Translate
    • REPLICATION:
    • 1. Helicase unwinds double helix.
    • 2. DNA polymerase synthesizes leading/top strand in 5 to 3'
    • 3. meanwhile you have the replication fork
    • 4.Lagging/bottom strand is started by RNA Primase which lays primers and DNA polymerase extends to make "okasaki fragments"
    • 5.Then RNA primer is replaced by DNA and DNA Ligase joins the fragments to finish lagging
    • ===========================
    • DNA transcription: Messenger RNA created from dna template; dna sequence read by RNA
    • 1. RNA polymerase unzips dna, binds to promoter site on dna and begins by braking H+ bonds and copies ones strand by relacing t's with U.
    • 2. Ends at termination sequences; complementary RNA is finished

    • =========================
    • TRANSLATION::
    • 1.mRNA + ribosome.
    • 2.Then tRNA has anticodon to bring aminoacides to match 3 nucleotides to the mRNA.
    • 3.Peptide bond forms b/w amino acids and tRNA is released from ribosome4.must reach stop codon.
  55. Metabolism & Two types
    The chemical reactions in a cell.

    • Two types:
    • 1.Anabolism: make larger molecules from smaller ones; more complex.
    • -Requires energy input
    • Ex: photosynthesis (light --> Sugar)

    • 2. Catabolism: chemical reactions that break down compounds and release energy.
    • -The energy is used to make ATP.
    • Ex: aerobic cellular respiration
  56. Glycolysis:
    • -where does it occur
    • -Bacterial products & How much
    • Glycolysis: the breakdown of glucose; occurs in cytoplasm
    • **BACTERIAL Products: 2 ATP (net gain), glucose, Pyruvate and NADH
    • 1. One molecule of Glucose (6C) is broken down into 2 Pyruvate (3C) molecules.
    • 2. Two ATP are used and 4 ATP are produced.
    • 3. Electrons are collected by NAD+ to become NADH: 2NAD+ +2H+ are used and make 2 NADH (NADH: electron carrier; carries 4 e-s)
    • 4. NAD+ or NADH is then used in glycolysis.
  57. Fermentation:
    -regenerated?
    -final electron acceptor?
    -Bacterial end products
    • Fermentation:
    • -No Oxygen needed; occurs anaerobically
    • -occurs in cytoplasm
    • -regenerates NAD+ from buildup of NADH in glycolysis
    • -PYRUVATE=Final organic electron acceptor; accepts electrons from NADH (donator of 2 e's) to create NAD+ + H+ which can go back into glucose
    • --> because pyruvate is organic, so are the products

    • BACTERIAL END PRODUCTS: Lactic Acid,
    • Ethanol, CO2
    • ------------------------------------------------
    • 1. Pyruvate (organic final electron acceptor) gains electrons from NADH and becomes Lactic acid in some bacteria which produce yogurt, such as Lactobacillus (one organic product)

    • 2. CO2 gas and Ethanol (2C)(organic compound) are produced by yeast fermentation (Ex: Saccharomyces cervisiae; bread, alcohol)
    • --> One Pyruvate (3C) accepts 2 e's from NADH and to form NAD+ and H+ and then createing Ethanol (2C) and CO2 (1C)

    3.NADH (electron carrier) loses electrons and becomes NAD+ (electron carrier) which goes back into glycolysis cycle.

  58. CELLULAR RESPIRATION:
    -what kind of electron acceptor?
    -two types
    Oxidation (removing/collecting e's) and breakdown of chemicals; coupled to generation of ATP due to this process

    -Requires an electron transportation system in membrane" molecules passing electrons to convert energy.

    -Requires Inorganic final electron acceptor: definitely NOT pyruvate which is organic.

    Two types: Aerobic and Anerobic.
  59. AEROBIC CELLULAR RESPIRATION:
    -Formula?
    -which species/animals?
    Still the breakdown of chemicals and ATP generation

    • -- O2: final e- acceptor (organic)
    • -- C6H1206 (glucose) + 6 O2 (oxygen) ---> 6 CO2 + 6 H20

    -- animals/humans, yeasts, fungi, some bacteria (M. tuberculosis=aerobes)
  60. ANAEROBIC CELLULAR RESPIRATION
    -what kind of electron acceptor
    -two examples: methanogens and E. coli
    -- Uses inorganic final Electron acceptor; obviously not Oxygen.

    • Example 1: Methanogens (Archaea; found in intestines and cows)
    • CO2 --> CH4 (methane gas)
    • carbon dioxide is the final inorganic electron acceptor

    • Example 2: E Coli:
    • NO3- --> NO2 (nitrate-Inorganic elec acceptor; becomes nitrite).
    • E. coli can either do aerobic, anaerobic respiration and fermentation o:
    • Last less than a minute in chlorine...
  61. what are the three Steps in aerobic cellular respiration ?
    makes 38 ATP from 1 glucose molecule

    • 1. Acetyl CoA
    • 2. Krebs Cycle
    • 3. Electron Transport System & Chemiosmosis
  62. Aerobic Cell Respiration: Acetyl CoEnzyme A Step
    One pyruvate from glycolysis (3C) and a Coenzyme A produce 1 "acetyl-coA (2c)" and one CO2 molecule (this reaction happens twice per glucose molecule--because it creates 2 pyruvates )

    --> NADH is produced as NAD+ collects electrons; NADH used to make ATP later in ETS system

    --> this steps occurs within cytoplasm of prokaryotes.
  63. Aerobic Cell Respiration: Krebs Cycle
    --> Oxaloacetate (4C) + 2C becomes citric acid- 6C (citrate) which eventually become 2 CO2 molecules

    --> During each Krebs cycle: 2 CO2 are made, 1 FAD and 3 NAD+ collect electrons, and 1 GTP (ATP equivalent) is made.

    --> Krebs cycle occurs twice per glucose molecule (2 pyruvate ) to produce FADH2 and NADH ( both goes into ETS system)

    --> occurs in matrix of mitochondrion of eukaryotes

    **SUMMARY OF PRODUCTS: 2 CO2, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 GTP**
  64. Aerobic Cell Respiration:Electron Transport System & Chemiosmosis
    ETS: molecules embedded in membrane that pass electrons to use energy; way to convert energy

    a)FADH2 and NADH gives electrons to the ETS (from krebs cycle; located in Plasma membrane of bacteria; made of proteins and other membrane molecules)

    b) H+ protons are pumped outside from inner membrane of mitochondrion of eukaryotes so that there is more of a H+ concentration buildup on the outside.

    c) O2 is an organic electron acceptor that uses the energy from passing electrons to create water.

    d) ATP synthase enzyme at the end of chain pumps the built up H+ concentration back inside; these protons are used to bond ADP + Pi (inorg phosphate) to create ATP. The creation of 38 ATP max is made.

    • Chemiosmosis:
    • 1.Chemio: H+ ions are pumped out of the bacterial cell using the energy provided by electrons flowing down the ETS.
    • 2. Osmosis:THEN the H+ ions flow into the cell through the ATP synthase and ATP & H20 is made.

    • **Other notes:
    • -ATP Synthase: Paul Boyer (1997) UCLA Nobel Prize
    • -Chemiosmosis: Peter Mitchell (1978)
  65. Syphillis
    Microbe
    Signs/Symptoms
    Congenital Syphillis
    Diagnosis
    Treatment
    • Microbe info: Treponema pallidum
    • -shape: spirochete

    • Transmission Mode:
    • contact w/ sore or rash

    • Signs/Symptoms:
    • 1. Primary stage: small hard painless sore at infection site
    • 2. Secondary stage: rash on hands/feet, hair loss, other signs and symptoms
    • 3. Latency: no signs S:
    • 4. Tertiary stage: about 15% of untreated cases; affects kin or CNS or aorta D:

    • Congenital Syphilis:
    • -Mother to baby transmitted, bacteria crosses placenta during latency.
    • -Affects neurological system, the mothers can be treated and cured.

    -Diagnosis: Darkfield microscopy/fluorescent antibody detection (primary stage) and Serological test (Secondary test)

    Treatment:Penicillin
  66. GONORRHEA
    Microbe
    Transmission
    Infected Parts of Body
    Signs/Symptoms
    Female Complications
    Treatment
    • Microbe: Neisseria gonorrheae
    • -diplococcus
    • -gram negative (pink)
    • -has fimbriae

    • Transmission: Infected mother can pass GC to newborns during childbirth.
    • -Antibiotics used to treate eyes of newborns to prevent GC

    Infected Parts of Body: urethra, pharynx, rectum, eyes, cervix, uterus, Fallopian tubes

    • Signs/Symptoms:
    • -Men: Frequently SYMPTOMATIC: pain when urinating, discharge
    • -Women: frequently ASYMPTOMATIC or...reddened cervix, abdominal pain, pain when urinating, disrupted menstrual cycle.

    • Female complications:
    • 1. Pelvic inflammatory disease: spread of disease to fallopital tubes/ovaries/uterus. Caused by gonorrhea or chlamydida.
    • --signs/symptoms: asymptomatic or fever/abdominal pain

    2. Salpingitis: infection of the fallopian tubes; severe form of PID

    3. Infertility and Ectopic Pregnancies (blocked eggs)

    **TREATMENT: Antibiotics or Cephalosporin.
  67. CHLAMYDIA:
    Microbe
    Signs/Symptom
    Complication for Women
    Diagnosis
    Treatment
    • Microbe: Chlamydia
    • -Intracellular bacteria
    • -very small (NOT visible in light microscope), infects the same cells as GC
    • -common cause of non-gonococcal rthritis

    • Signs/Symptoms:
    • -Patients are asymptomatic

    • Complications for Women:
    • 1. PID (Pelvic Inflamm. Disease)spread of disease to fallopital tubes/ovaries/uterus. Caused by gonorrhea or chlamydida. --signs/symptoms: asymptomatic or fever/abdominal pain

    • Diagnosis:
    • 1.Culture
    • 2. nonculture test (DNA detection)
    • **gram stain is useless because it is too small

    Treatment: Antibiotics like Doxycycline
  68. Horizontal Gene Transfer:
    --> two types: Recombiant?
    --> Effects?
    Bacteria can pass their genes not only to their offspring but also LATERALLY to other microbes of the SAME generation.

    -transfer involves a DONOR cell that gives a portion of its total DNA to the RECIPIENT cell (aka "recombinant"-incorporation donor's dna into its own dna)

    1. Genetic exchange:
    DNA fragment/plasmi is transferred to bacteria

    2. Genetic (homologous) recombination: DNA fragment is integrated into the chromosome

    • Some effects of Horizontal gene transfer:
    • 1. Increased ability to cause disease
    • 2. Antibiotic resistance
  69. Heat (Physical Control of Microbes):
    a. autoclave & monitoring
    b. Bacticinerator
    c. Boiling water.
    d. pasteurization: time and temp? goal?
    -Time and temp are inversely related.

    • a) autoclave: sterilize using moist heat; 121 degrees celsius at 15 Pounds Per Square Inch (PSI)==> Protein denaturing.-use for objects, some plastics, and liquids, metal objects... may corrode.
    • -steam must contact item
    • -two ways to monitor: (1) autoclave tape has strips that you put through a machine and if the strips get marked then it is sterile and (2)

    b) Bacticinerator: Incineration and flaming; loops and sterilizing trash?

    c) Boiling water: good disinfectant for drinking; not reliable way to sterilize.

    • d) Pasteurization: head liquid briefly w/ goal of killing pathogens
    • -Not sterile nor a disinfectant.
    • -30 mins at 62.9 deg C or 15 secs at 76 degs C
  70. BETA LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS
    --> what does it inhibit?
    --> three subgroups:
    1. Penicillins:
    --> discovery? Works against? Treats? Beta lactamase enzyme?
    2. Cephalosporins

    3. Carbapenems
    --> example and what it treats?
    • Inhibit peptidoglycan crosslinking in tetrapeptides *NAM & NAG*
    • --> bacteriocidal: kills the bacterium;
    • -->Includes the subgroups:
    • A) penicillins:
    • Example: penicillin (the original)- Discovered by Alexander Fleming 1928 (an accident; mixing fungi, zone of inhibition around the growing mold)
    • • Produced by Penicillium notatum (now P. chrysogenum)
    • • Worked against Staphylococcus aureus
    • • First antibiotic; Narrow spectrum
    • • Treat strep throat (Streptococcus pyogenes)
    • -Organisms make Penicillinase: A type of beta lactamase: an enzyme that works against penicillin to become resistant to it. (another broader term: beta lactamase)

    B)cephalosporins -outdated and no longer works

    C)carbapenems ex: imipenem used to treat some Gram Negative bacterial infections
  71. Antibiotic resistance genes & Mechanisms
    -->Acquiring antibiotic resistance genes
    -->Antibiotic resistance mechanisms; what do reistant organisms actually do:
    -From mutations or pre-existing genes

    • -->Acquiring antibiotic resistance genes:
    • • Natural selection - increases frequency b/c the well adapted cells are surviving & reproducing vs the ones that are not well-adapted
    • • Conjugation (DNA transferred from donor to recipient through pillus (straight hair-like structure)
    • • Transformation (in a lab); only certain bacteria can do this.

    • -->Antibiotic resistance mechanisms; what do reistant organisms actually do:
    • 1. Drug inactivation (penicillinase) to become resistant; cuts ring
    • 2. Drug efflux: drug pumped out of cell
    • 3. Alteration of drug target site shape (e.g. ribosome); so bacteria still works, but the drug can no longer bind.
  72. Problems with antibiotic resistant bacteria: MRSA
    --> aquired how? where did it start? carried where?
    --> how is it treated?!
    --> staph aureus: gram wut?
    --> how to prevent?
    • -->Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    • • Community acquired MRSA: tends to be skin infections that can spread
    • • Healthcare associated MRSA in clinics, hospitals e.g. at surgical site infection -started in hospital settings;
    • • Treated with vancomycin and maybe surgery or amputation to get rid of infection; used to be treated with penicillin group related drugs (oxacillin, methicillin,etc) but became resistant so must be treated with a non-penicillin drug
    • -->Staphylococcus aureus: gram +

    • -->Prevent transmission of MRSA skin infections:
    • • Good hygiene
    • • Don’t share towels, sports equipment, clothes
    • • Get a “spider bite” checked
    • • Cover an infected area
    • **Note: healthy carriers can have MRSA in their noses; a third of people have S. aureus
  73. VISA & VRSA
    --> how did it originate?
    VISA - vancomycin intermediate Staph.aureus & VRSA - vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus;

    • **KNOW: MRSA gained additional resistance to vancomycin, looking for additional drugs OTHER than vancomysin
    • • Problems in hospitals

    So far, other drugs still work…What drugs do NOT work? pencillin groups and vancomycin..
  74. Clostridium difficile
    Gram Positive ROD; forms endospores and produces exotoxin (**can survive most antibiotics**)

    • Overgrowth due to broad spectrum antibiotic use
    • -can cause life-threatening (See nosocomial infection handout)
    • --causes endospores;
  75. Klebsiella pneumoniae
    -gram? shows up where?
    -resistant to? and what enzyme makes it resistant?
    -CRKP
    Oct. 2010 new drug resistant bacteria:

    Gram negative bacteria, Opportunistic; show up in clinical settings

    • New strain is resistant to carbapenems (ibapenem used against gram neg; so now not many other drugs to treat)

    KPC or CRKP: Carbopenem resistant Klesiella pneumoniae

    • Has carbapenemase-makes it resistant to carbapenems
  76. Epidemic
    Greater than expected number of cases of disease in a population in a short time.
  77. Escherichia coli:
    --> gram? found where?
    --> oxygen requirements?
    --> Causes?
    Gram Negative ROD; usually part of normal flora-in intestinal coliform.

    -Facultatively anaerobic

    -In community settings, can cause: UTI, nosocomial pneumonia, and wound infections
  78. Staphylococcus aureus
    --> gram? found where?
    --> oxygen requirements?
    --> Causes
    --> MRSA?
    Gram Positive COCCUS; can be carried in healthy people's noses & end up on skin

    -->Community setting can cause: Toxic Shock Syndrome, food intoxication, skin infections (boils, impedigo) can spread to other organs.

    --> MRSA: community acquired Methicillin resistant Staph. aureus; BIG problem in hospitals

    --> can cause: nosocomial pneumonia
  79. Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    --> gram?
    --> oxygen requirements?
    --> Causes ? in what kind of patients?
    --> nosocomial?
    Gram Negative Rod; strict aerobe; Resistant to many antibiotics & resistants

    **NOTE: GENTAMICIN & Quat Ammonia...

    --> Causes wound infections (especially in burn victims who are missing a skin barrier)

    --> causes pneumonia (esp. in cystic fibrosis patients-forms a biofilm in CF air passages) and immunocompromised individuals.

    --> Can cause nosocomial UTI & wound infections
  80. Clostridium difficile
    --> gram?
    --> oxygen requirements?
    --> virulence factors:
    --> Causes and life-threatening how?
    --> Hospital issues?
    Gram Positive ROD; forms endospores and produces exotoxin (**can survive most antibiotics**)

    --> grows well when normal intestinal flora is eliminated (such as antibiotics)

    --> can be a life threatening diarrheal disease

    --> Big problem in hospitals, nursing homes and a serious risk for the elderly and NOW recent cases have occurred in healthy individuals D:
  81. Acinetobacter baumanii
    --> Gram?
    --> ICU issues?
    --> treat with with what drug group??
    • Gram Negative Rod
    • -->Can contaminate respiratory equipment in ICU: respirators with saline; opening up and closing tube breaks the sterility.
    • -->Big problem for injured soldiers overseas (Iraq)
    • --> treated with carbapenem; can become resistant.
  82. Three Factors that contribute to Nosocomial infections? How?
    1. Microbes in hospital environment: will always be there (normal flora)

    2. Compromised Host: the sick patient (can't change this either)

    3. Chain of Transmission: what we CAN change; "infection control" to stop microbe from traveling from patient to patient.
  83. The 10 Virulence Factors (list)
    --> virulence:
    Virulence: More likely to cause severe disease; degree of pathogenicity of a microbe.

    • 1. Dose
    • 2. Adhesion/attachment to host cells
    • 3. Invasion of host cells
    • 4. Biofilms
    • 5. Capsules
    • 6. Enzymes
    • 7. Antigenic variation
    • 8. Cell to Cell Transmission
    • 9. Exotoxins
    • 10. Endotoxins
  84. Dose (virulence Factor)
    --> ex: poultry juice
    • ex: Campylobacter jejuni
    • --> only a small number of microbes needed to cause disease (in poultry-drop of juice)
  85. Adhesion/Attachment to Host Cell (virulence Factor)
    --> example of microbe:
    Microbes sticking to host cells; all viruses and some bacteria

    ex: E. coli : from petting zoos, raw spinach, lettuce, and hamburgers
  86. Invasion of Host Cells (virulence Factor)

    --> example:
    • -microbe enters/invades host cells
    • -all viruses but some bacteria

    • ex: Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium: attach to host cell, force it to swallow a bacterial cell and eventually spreads to other organs
    • --seen in poultry, eggs, inside tomatoes and reptiles
  87. Biofilms example (Virulence Factor)
    Steptococcus mutans: forms cavities

    any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other on a surface. These adherent cells are frequently embedded within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Biofilm EPS, which is also referred to as slime (although not everything described as slime is a biofilm), is a polymeric conglomeration generally composed of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides.
  88. Capsule example (Virulence Factor)

    Steptococcus pneumoniae

    --The capsule is considered a virulence factor because it enhances the ability of bacteria to cause disease (e.g. prevents phagocytosis). The capsule can protect cells from engulfment by eukaryotic cells, such as macrophages.[2] A capsule-specific antibody may be required for phagocytosis to occur. Capsules also contain water which protects bacteria against desiccation.
  89. Antigenic Variation (Virulence Factor)
    -ex?
    Proteins on microbe surface change, and becomes unrecognizable to immune system

    ex: influenza virus, HIV
  90. LISTERIOSIS
    -virulence factor?
    -gram?
    -Found where?
    -Serious complications?
    Listeria monocytogenes causes Listeriosis

    **VIRULENCE FACTOR: Cell to Cell Transmission**

    in macrophages, phagocytosed==> don'[t kill but instead float through cytoplasm; travels from 1 macrophage to another

    -Gram positive rod; found in soil and animal intestines; soft french cheeses, deli meats and hot dogs

    -serious consequences: meningitis, Pregnancy: miscarriage, fetal brain damage, and fetal meningitis
  91. Exotoxins vs. Endotoxins (Virulence Factor)
    -examples:
    Exotoxins: are secreted proteins into the bloodstream, mostly gram positive; HIGHLY TOXIC; gets into bloodstream and causes effect at specific sites in the body.

    ex: Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani, and Staph aureus

    • ENDOTOXINS: Lipid A portion of LPS (in cell wall of gram negative cells); weakly toxic; causes endotoxic shock--if microbes die and exotoxins released so person goes into shock D:
    • --> ex: any lysed gram negative organism
  92. Botulism
    -caused by? gram? found?
    - signs/symptoms?
    -how is it destroyed?
    -Infant botullism vs adult?
    -Treatment?
    Caused by: Clostridium botulinum (gram positive ROD;found in soil)

    • -exotoxin causes flaccid paralysis (flabby muscles); can be destroyed by heat (can of beans, cooking)
    • -Improperly canned foods (anaerobic conditions)
    • -Infant botulism: caused by ingesting endospores from honey and soil;
    • adults get botulism by ingestion of exotoxins --> blurry vision, difficulty swallowing and breathing
    • -Treatment: antitoxin and supportive care.
  93. Tetanus:
    -caused by? oxygen req, gram? found where?
    -signs and symptoms?
    -treatments?
    Clostridium tentani: obligately anaerobic, endospore-forming, gram positive rod, common in soil contaminated with animial fecies.

    -exotoxin prevents muscle relaxation; constant contracted muscles

    -endospores enter wounds

    -->symptoms: lock jaw, muscle stiffness/spasms

    --> Treatments: antibiotic, antitoxin, and muscle relaxant. "Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine-TDaP"
  94. Staphylococcus aureus
    --> virulence factors? how is it produced?
    --> what growth conditions?
    • -exotoxin causes signs/symptoms of foodborne illness; we contaminate the food by cooking food high in protein...; good growth conditions: on a picnic table
    • --> food intoxication

    **NOTE: EXOTOXIN IS PRODUCED AND IS NOT KILLED BY HEAT**
  95. Meningitis
    --> Microbes for fungus, virus?
    --> signs/ symptoms: <2 years and >2 yrs?
    --> Diagnosis?
    --> Three major bacterial causes of meningitis:
    • Inflammation of the meninges (the membranes that surround the brain), occurs when a microbe enters the CSF from the blood.
    • **note: acute disease, communicable, not local infection

    • -->Microbes: Fungus (cryptococcus neoformans), viruses (west nile) and bacteria..
    • --> Signs/Symptoms: Under 2 yrs: inactivity, irritability, vomiting, maybe skin rash. Over 2 years: fever, stiff neck, headache, possible vomitting and nausea

    --> Diagnosis: detection of microbe from CSF or serum.

    • Three major bacterial causes of meningitis:
    • 1. Streptococcus pneumoniae:
    • 2. Haemophilus influenzae type b:
    • 3. Neisseria meningitidis:
  96. Three major bacterial causes of meningitis:
    1. Streptococcus pneumoniae:
    2. Haemophilus influenzae type b:
    3. Neisseria meningitidis:

    **Characteristics of Bacterial meningitis:
    1. Streptococcus pneumoniae: Gram positive diplococcus; also causes pneumonia.

    • --> vaccines:
    • -Younger than 2 yrs:polysaccharide vaccine(PPSV)
    • -pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV12): children <5 yrs

    • 2. Haemophilus influenzae type b: aerobic, gram negative rod.
    • --> vaccines: conjugated vaccine (<5 yrs); polysaccharide + protein

    • 3. Neisseria meningitidis: gram negative diplococcus (aka meningococcus)
    • --> vaccines: effective against 4 out of 5 strains, can't be used in children <2 yrs; "MCV4" (conjugated), "MPSV4" (polysaccharide vaccine)
    • --> other signs: low blow pressure, rash ("meningococcemia": when bacteria enter blood stream)

    • **Characteristics of Bacterial meningitis: Has a capsule, transmitted by respiratory secretions, found in noses/throats of seemingly healthy carriers, college dorm students/young children/military are mostly at risk, and it's a life threatening disease.
    • --> Treatment: usually antibiotics
  97. Anthrax (Basics)
    --> Microbe info: gram, virulence factors, oxygen?
    --> affected animals?
    --> prevent?
    --> four types of human anthrax:
    --> diagnosis and treatments?
    --> vaccines
    • Microbe: Bacillus anthracis
    • --> endospore forming, gram postive rod, found in soil, non-motile & aerobic, has capsule and exotoxins (virulence factors); obligate parasite.
    • --> affected animals: sheep, cattle, goats.
    • --> Signs/symptoms: "sudden death"
    • --> Prevent: annual vaccination boosters.

    • **ANTHRAX IN HUMANS:
    • 1. Cutaneous skin: skin contact w/ endospores; 95% of anthrax cases in people, can get into bloodstream; treatable w/ antibiotics
    • 2. Gastrointestinal: by ingesting endospores in meat; nausea, vomiting, fever, bloody diahhrea, collapse/death; 80% mortality for untreated cases.
    • 3. Injectional: by injected drugs; fatal
    • 4. Pulmonary: inhaling endospores; flu-like symptoms; sudden shock/death (MOST DANGEROUS FORM) and bacteria can enter bloodstream

    --> Diagnosis: gram stain, PCR: detect bacteria in blood/skin/resp secretions

    --> Treatments: Doxycycline (tetra) or Ciprofloxacin (fluoroquinolone); must be started in beginning stages of disease.

    **Vaccines: attenuated (weakened) B. anthracis (animals), AVA-Anthrax vaccine absorbed (humans that work w/ animals since they can get spores from them.)
  98. Schistosoma mansoni EGG
    --disease?
    --worm type/phylum
    --life cycle
    --signs/symptoms
    • Flatworm (Phylum Platyhelminthes)--Blood FLUKE (Termatodes)
    • -causes schistosomiasis

    -Life cycle: Ova in stool/urine --> larvae (miracidia) reach water--> infect snails (intermediate host) & develop into cercariae--> infects humans in water (definitive host; site of parasite reproduction; travels to intestines thru blood vessels)

    --signs/symptoms: itchy skins, fever, rash, no death
  99. Taenia Pistiformis scolex
    -worm type/ phylum?
    -causes?
    -bodyparts?
    -lifecycle: intermediate and definitive host?


    • Flatworm (Phylum Platyhelminthes)
    • Tapeworm/Cestodes--> causes taeniasis

    • Body parts:
    • 1. Scolex: head w/ suckers
    • 2. Proglottids: tapeworm sections (egg production)
    • 3. cuticle: covering; absorb nutrients
    • 4. Hermaphroditic...

    • LIFE CYCLE:
    • Live in human's small intestines (definitive host) & mate; eggs released into feces--> pigs/cows (enter larval stage; cysts found in muscle)--> undercooked meat infects ppl.
  100. Trichinella spiralis
    -worm type/phylum
    -cause?
    -Life cycle
    -Diagnosis & Prevention
    • ROUND WORM: PHYLUM NEMATODA
    • -Cause trichinosis

    • LIFE CYCLE:
    • Human eats larvae in uncooked meat; grow into adult worm,mate, produce larvae--> encyst in human muscle (now rare in us)

    Diagnosis: serology (look for antibodies; past resistance) & muscle biopsy

    Prevent: cook meat well, avoid pork..
  101. Enterobius vermicularis egg
    -worm type/phylum
    -cause?
    -Life cycle
    -Diagnosis & Prevention
    • ROUND WORM: PHYLUM NEMATODA
    • -causes: enterobiasis; world wide disease

    • Life Cycle:
    • eggs layed in anal area-> fingers -> ingested & hatch in small intestine & adult worms infect large intestine (living there for 2 months)
    • **doesn't need intermediate host**

    • Diagnose: sticky clear tape to collect eggs
    • -drug treatment
    • Prevent: good hygiene/sanitation
  102. Enterobius vermicularis Adult Worm

    -worm type/phylum
    -cause?
    -Life cycle
    -Diagnosis & Prevention
    • ROUND WORM: PHYLUM NEMATODA
    • -causes: enterobiasis; world wide disease

    • Life Cycle:
    • eggs layed in anal area-> fingers -> ingested & hatch in small intestine & adult worms infect large intestine (living there for 2 months)
    • **doesn't need intermediate host**

    Diagnose: sticky clear tape to collect eggs-drug treatment

    Prevent: good hygiene/sanitation
  103. Staphylococcus epidermidis
    • -Gram positive
    • -Facultative anaerobic; on human skin
    • -white..

  104. Staphylococcus aureus
    • -coagulase: causes plaasma to clot (coagulae test)
    • -found on noses, yellow
    • -causes common infections: skin, toxic shock, and pneumonia
    • -enterotoxin (exotoxin): causes food poisioning
    • -MRSA

  105. Streptococci:
    • gram positive; forms in chains; mouth/throat;
    • --lacks catalase
    • -strict or facultative anaerobes
    • -grouped by hemolysis or lancefield groups (based on detecting carb antigents thru serological methods)
    • a. Streptococcus pyogenes:
    • b. Streptococcus pneumonia:
  106. Streptococcus pyogenes:
    -aka "Group A Strep" or "beta hemolytic strep"

    • -causes mild infections: ear, impetigo, pharyngitis (strep throat--> scarlet fever)
    • -can be carriers; in throat
    • -Invasive GAS: necrotiziing fascitis ("flesh eating bacteria") and strep toxic shock.
    • -Diagnosis: agglutination test

    • --> Related infections:
    • 1. strep throat: fever, painful sore throate, swollen lymph nodes
    • 2. scarlet fever: rash, red/strawberry tongue
    • 3.Rheumatic fever: immune response against strep==> damage heart valves; multiple rounds of strep
    • 4. necrotizing fasciitis: rapid destruction; need skin grafts
    • 5. Strep toxic shock: drop in blood pressure/organ failure
  107. Streptococcus pneumonia:
    • -aka pneumococcus;
    • major cause of pneumonia and bacterial meningitis
    • -virulence: uses capsule
  108. Streptococcus LAB:
    -blood agar...what kind of mediums?
    -alpha vs. beta?
    • -blood agar: TSA + RBC
    • -enrichment medium: good for "picky organisms"
    • -differential medium: different microbes appear on diff mediums
    • -throat swab and use for first streak on an isolation plate

    • --> observations around colonies...
    • a. Alpha: greenish brown; partial lysing of RBC; strep pneumonia and strep mutans

    b. beta: clear areas; complete lysing, strep pyogenes & staph aureus

  109. Ascaris lumbricoides
    -giant roundworm of humans, belonging to the phylum Nematoda. An ascarid nematode, it is responsible for the disease ascariasis in humans

    -There they break into the alveoli and pass up the trachea where they are coughed up and swallowed. The larvae pass through the stomach for a second time into the intestine where they mature into adult worms. They maintain their position by swimming against the intestinal flow caused by peristalsis.
  110. Three types of Horizontal gene transfer?? (pg 233-239)
    1. Transformation:
    2. Conjugation:
    3. Transduction:
    1. Transformation: gain DNA "naked" dna from environment; DNA fragment/plasmid is gained

    2. Conjugation: DNA transferred from donor to recipient through pillus (straight hair-like structure)

    3. Transduction:DNA carried from donor to recipient by bacteriophage (virus)
  111. Transformation (Horizontal Gene Transfer)
    - Griffith's role?
    -Avery's role?
    Gain DNA "naked" dna from environment; DNA fragment/plasmid is gained

    --> Recipient cell is "competent" (due to alternation in cell to make it permeable to large dna molecules) when it is in a physiological state to uptake the donor DNA.

    --> Frederick Griffith 1928: Streptococcus Pneumoniae; mixed dead encapsulated bacteria (non-virulent) with live non-encapsulated bacteria and injected into mice==>died. In blood: living encapsulated bacteia!! Found out that genes of dead bacteria entered the live cells; changing them genetically to become virulent.

    --> Avery and colleagues: discovered DNA is the hereditary material in 1944 (rather than previously thought protein)
  112. Conjugation (Horizontal Gene Transfer):

    -Transferred how?
    -what kind of dna?
    -compared to transformation?
    -F Factor & E.coli
    -Rolling Circle replication
    transferred from donor to recipient through pillus (straight hair-like structure)

    -->mediated by one kind of plasmid (a circular piece of dna that replicates independently from cell's chromosome); get transmitted during conjugation.

    -->unlike Transformation: Requires direct cell-to-cell contact; AND the donor cells must carry the plasmid while the recipient cell shouldn't (opposite mating type)

    -->E.Coli & F Factor : conjugative plasmid that carries genes for sex pili and for the transfer of the plasmid to another cell.


    --> Rolling circle replication: describes a process of unidirectional nucleic acid replication that can rapidly synthesize multiple copies of circular molecules of DNA or RNA, such as plasmids, the genomes of bacteriophages, and the circular RNA genome of viroids
  113. Transduction (Horizontal Gene Transfer)
    --> generalized?
    --> specialized?
    • DNA carried from donor to recipient by bacteriophage (virus)
    • --> generalized or specific transduction
    • --> accidental; transducing particle lacks viral genetic material

    -->bacterial DNA transferred from a donor cell to a recipient cell inside a virus that infect bacteria called a bacteriophage (generalized)

    -->Specialized transduction: The process of transferring a piece of cell DNA adjacent to a prophage to another cell.

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