Kaplan CSET English (Reading, Language, and Literature) P-test.txt

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Kaplan CSET English (Reading, Language, and Literature) P-test.txt
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Kaplan CSET English Reading Language Literature test
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Kaplan CSET English (Reading, Language, and Literature) P-test
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  1. Which of the following phonological awareness skills is considered easiest for young students to acquire?

    A) blending sounds together to form a spoken word (e.g. b+u+g=bug)

    B) Identifying the initial sound in a word

    C) Recognizing that two words contain the same phoneme (e.g. cheese and lunch)

    D) Identifying a word that does not belong in a group of spoken words
    B) Identifying the initial sound in a word

    The most basic skill in phonological awareness begins with children identifying simple phonemes, the easiest being initial hard consonants, such as b in boy.
  2. The study of how sounds, words, phrases and sentences combine to convey meaning and context is 

    A) Syntax

    B) Morphology

    C) Semantics

    D) Phonology
    C) Semantics

    Semantics is the study of how sounds, words, phrases, and sentences combine to convey meaning and context.

    • Syntax (A) is sentence structure, Morphology (B) is the study of word structure,
    • Phonology (D) is the study of the way sounds function in a particular language.
  3. Which of the following represents the morphology of the word astronomy?

    A) as-tron-o-my

    B) astronomy come from the greek language

    C) astron = star(s) + nomos = laws; therefore, astronomy = the law of stars

    D) a science involving the observation and explanation of events occurring outside Earth and its atmosphere
    C) astron = star(s) + nomos = laws; therefore, astronomy = the law of stars

    • Morphology is the study of word structure.
    • Choice (A) refers to syllabification- how the word astronomy is divided into syllables.
    • Choice (B) concerns the word's derivation, where it comes from.
    • Choice (D) is the definition
  4. Which of the following statements is NOT a good pedagogical reason for a teacher to dictate grill and girl to her third-grade students?

    A) Students will need to listen for subtle differences in sound

    B) The dictation will encourage phonological awareness

    C) Students will begin to understand the influences of vowel-like consonants-- in this case r-- on a vowel -- in this case i

    D) Students will better understand prescriptive grammar
    D) Students will better understand prescriptive grammar

    Choice (D)  is correct because this particular dictation would reflect issues of structural linguistics.
  5. Some common vowel patterns are associated with more than one pronunciation. which of the following nonsense words illustrates a vowel pattern that is highly consistent in its pronunciation?

    A) strow

    B) klead

    C) wough

    D) nain
    D) nain

    The "ai" vowel pattern is associated with the "long a" sound in words such as rain, maid, and praise. Studies of sound symbol correspondences in English have found very few exceptions to this rule (said).
  6. The languages of the world are similar to each other in all of the following ways except:

    A) the rules of morphology(e.g. adding s to a singular noun to make it plural)

    B) the basic principles of phrase structure

    C) the fact that the phonemes are morphemes of a language are arbitrary
     
    D) a logical syntax
    A) the rules of morphology(e.g. adding s to a singular noun to make it plural)

    The rules of morphology change from language to language; for example, adding s to a singular noun to make it plural applies to English, Spanish and French but not German or Japanese.
  7. In which of the following sentences is the italicized word used correctly?

    A) Do you complement your students?

    B) These shoes will certainly complement your new dress.

    C) Fortunately, the newborn had the entire compliment of fingers and toes.

    D) Stan is shy and Maria is outgoing; they compliment each other nicely.
    B) These shoes will certainly complement your new dress.

    • The homonyms complement and compliment are often confused
    • Complement means "an entirety of something"
    • Compliment means "to make something complete"
  8. What kind of verbal is the word cooking in the sentence " I think cooking should be taught in elementary school"?

    A) a gerund

    B) an infinitive

    C) an adverbial

    D) a participle
    A) a gerund

    • A gerund is the -ing form of a verb when it is used as a noun.
    • An infinitive is the "to" form of a verb that can used as a noun (ex. He loves to swim)
    • A participle can be part of a verb (ex. He was swimming a race) or as an adj. (ex He forgot his swimming cap)
  9. Which of the following word identification strategies is typically easiest for young children to practice while reading?

    A) sounding out, by applying phonics knowledge

    B) using context clues of surrounding words

    C) recognizing sight words

    D) analyzing word structure
    A) sounding out, by applying phonics knowledge

    "Sounding out" typically comes before understanding context, recognizing sight words, or the most complex skill, analyzing word structure.
  10. Which of the following sentences contains a relative clause?

    A) Chloe is capable swimmer, but she couldn't beat her best friend Sally in the race.

    B) The book that fell was leather bound.

    C) When I move from the city, will you write me?

    D) After studying all night, Tim overslept and he missed his exam.
    B) The book that fell was leather bound.

    A clause is a group of words consisting of a subject and a predicate, the two main types being independent and dependent. An independent clause can stand alone as a viable simple sentence. A dependent clause cannot stand alone as a sentence-it depends on an independent clause.
  11. The field of pragmatics considers the social, physical, and cultural context of languages. Which of the following is not an example of a pragmatic element of culture?

    A) Italian speakers use expressive hand movements when talking.

    B) Japanese speakers employ neutral or respect forms of their language when addressing strangers and elders.

    C) Senegalese griots (oral historians) sing about a lineage of ancestors and their deeds.

    D) English speakers can pronounce "read" as either [reed] or [red].
    D) English speakers can pronounce "read" as either [reed] or [red].

    Pragmatics is a systematic way of explaining language use in context. It seeks to explain aspects of meaning that cannot be found in the plain sense of words or structures, as explained by semantics.
  12. Which of the following is the best example of Noam Chomsky's theory of Universal Grammar, as reflected in a child's linguistic error?

    A) "Tommy ain't sharing!"

    B) "Me want the puzzle!" 

    C) "My kitty is not never coming back."

    D) "I see three mans."
    D) "I see three mans."

    • Universal Grammar is a theory of linguistics proposing the existence of underlying principles of grammar shared by all languages. These underlying principles are said to be innate to all human beings. This theory does not attempt to claim that all human languages have the same grammar; rather. it proposes that there exists an underlying set of rules that helps children to acquire their particular language. 
    • The answer is (D) because they have already absorbed and understood that plurals are usually formed by adding "s".
  13. Prewriting strategies include all but which of the following:

    A) outlining

    B) webbing

    C) editing

    D) note-taking
    C) editing

    Editing is not a prewriting strategy
  14. 1 Our belief in the inherent worth and dignity of every person, the democratic process, a world community in peace, and respect for the interconnected web of life on this earth inspires us all to social action. 2 As youth, we must be on the forefront of all movements for peace and justice. 3 We are not just the future; we are the present! 4 these are our lives, right now, that are affected by every policy and practice in this world. 5 therefore, we need to use our energy and power to change systems of oppression and injustice.

    Which of the following is the topic sentence of the above paragraph?

    A) sentence 1

    B) sentence 2

    C) sentence 3

    D) sentence 4
    B) sentence 2

    Because it expresses the main thought from which all the other sentences in the paragraph emanate.
  15. which of the following presentation components would be most important to a poetry recitation?

    A) organization and volume

    B) pace and organization

    C) gesture and volume

    D) pace and enunciation
    D) pace and enunciation

    Answers (A) and (B) deal with organization, as such, do not effect poetry recitation. Answer (C) is the not the most important element during recitation. Answer (D) pace and enunciation, are especially crucial for a dramatic, clear, and effective poetry reading.
  16. skipped question 16
    skipped question 16
  17. skipped question 17
    skipped question 17
  18. According to Krashen's Natural Language Approach, learning a second language should include which of the following?

    A) a traditional, formal approach to the language

    B) attention to grammatical mistakes made by the student

    C) knowing all the grammar and syntax rules

    D) care not to overcorrect the students
    D) care not to overcorrect the students

    According to Krashen, teaching too many formal rules before students have acquired enough of the language leads to hesitancy, insecurity, and resistance. The time to correct students mistakes is on a written assignment, or in a formal speaking situation, and only after the student has acquired basic fluency in the language.
  19. which one of the following sentences is not correctly punctuated?

    A) Fight road grime by washing your car frequently, however, don't scrub off the protective wax.

    B)Fight road grime by washing your car frequently, but don't scrub off the protective wax.

    C) Fight road grime by washing your car frequently. However, don't scrub off the protective wax.

    D) Fight road grime by washing your car frequently; however, don't scrub off the protective wax.
    A) Fight road grime by washing your car frequently, however, don't scrub off the protective wax.

    Choice (A) is called a run-on sentence
  20. A teacher has many and varied objectives in the teaching of literacy to their students. Considering this, which of the following is least likely to be an objective?

    A) the decoding of written words by reading

    B) developing appropriate assessment tools

    C) generating words using proper grammar and spelling

    D)learning to seek out and retrieve information
    B) developing appropriate assessment tools

    A, B, and C correctly concern objective the teacher of literacy has for their students.

    developing assessment tools is more for the teacher (a very crucial aspect of effective teaching)
  21. 1 The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is home to caribou, moose, musk, oxen, wolves, foxes, grizzlies, polar bears, and migratory birds. 2 Leaders in the oil industry believe the refuge is the perfect site for the "environmentally sensitive exploration" of oil, in other words, drilling. 3 Environmentalists are wondering, "what will become of the wildlife?" 4 I believe the cost to out environment of such destructive drilling is too high.

    Which of the following sentences most strongly suggest that the above speech except is persuasive in its intent?

    A) Sentence 1

    B) Sentence 2

    C) Sentence 3

    D) Sentence 4
    D) Sentence 4

    Most of the except adopts an expository  neutral tone that can be found in a purely informational speech. Sentence 4 reveals that the author has a strong opinion and is trying to persuade the listener.
  22. Which of the following research questions provides the most appropriate starting point for an objective investigation into the issues raised in the except?

    A) Are there other endangered refuges in the US?

    B) How do the opponents of oil exploration plan to organize protest?

    C) How do the proponents of drilling propose to be environmentally sensitive in the exploration for oil?

    D) Why are environmental issues the business of oil lobbies?
    C) How do the proponents of drilling propose to be environmentally sensitive in the exploration for oil?

    A researcher who wants to conduct an objective investigation of this issue should also seek out and evaluate the arguments raised by those holding the opposite view.
  23. What subject matter is most likely to be found in a parable?

    A) the origins of the earth and human being

    B) a moral tale involving animals as characters

    C) the history of a culture

    D) the importance of love
    B) a moral tale involving animals as characters

    Parables, fables, and allegories are all story telling venues that present a moral tale, very often one involving animals as characters.
  24. Chicago

    Hog Butcher for the world,
    Tool Maker, Stacker of Wheat,
    Player with railroads and the Nation's Freight Handler;
    Stormy, husky, brawling,
    City of the Big Shoulders

    In this poem, the writer suggest that the source of Chicago's raw energy and optimism is

    A) its vigorous laboring class

    B) a muscular, male pair of shoulders

    C)the nation's railroad system that connects it with other urban centers

    D) the production of meat
    A) its vigorous laboring class
  25. What literary device is the writer using when addressing the city of Chicago as an individual?

    A) allusion

    B) simile

    C) alliteration

    D) personification
    D) personification

    Personification attributes human qualities to non-human animals or objects. 
  26. The Muppets' "Monsterpiece Theater" mimics the PBS show "Masterpiece Theater."
    This type of work is called a(n)

    A) Fantasy

    B) Parody

    C) Novella

    D) Allegory
    B) Parody

    The correct choice, parody, is a humorous form that imitates the style and conventions of a serious work.

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