Kaplan CSET English Vocabulary (Reading, Language, and Literature)

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Kaplan CSET English Vocabulary (Reading, Language, and Literature)
2013-05-30 15:49:25
Kaplan CSET English Vocabulary Reading Language Literature

Kaplan CSET English Vocabulary (Reading, Language, and Literature)
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  1. Allegory
    An Allegory is a form of extended metaphor, in which objects, persons, and actions in a narrative, are equated with the meanings that lie outside the narrative itself. The underlying meaning has moral, social, religious, or political significance, and characters are often personifications of abstract ideas as charity, greed, or envy. Thus an allegory is a story with two meanings, a literal meaning and a symbolic meaning.
  2. Alliteration
    the repetition of usually initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words or syllables (as wild and woolly,threatening throngs) —called also head rhyme, initial rhyme
  3. Allusion
    an implied or indirect reference especially in literature
  4. Antagonist
    The character who opposes the main character in a work of fiction. The Antagonist is sometimes referred to the nemesis.
  5. Archetypes
    • Models or patterns instantly recognizable for their universal characteristics.
    • examples:
    • 1) Wise old man - the old man with long white beard who knows everything
    • 2) hero (not so much of heroine) - usually in fantasy stories
    • 3) anti-hero
    • 4) an outcast
  6. Characterization
    The creation of character to populate a story.
  7. Climax
    The high point of a narrative. Follows the rising action of a story and precludes the denouement, or wrapping up.
  8. Connotation
    the set of associations a word conveys, as opposed to its strict definition.
  9. Denotation
    The direct or explicit meaning of a word, it's definition.
  10. Denouement
    the wrap-up of a story, the part after the climax of the story
  11. Descriptive writing
    Writing that paints a picture of a fictional world, utilizing several adjectives.
  12. Dialogue
    conversations between two or more characters in fiction or non fiction
  13. Expository writing
    • writing that presents information critical for understanding of a whole piece. Expository writing is used to inform readers about a specific topic. This is done through giving direct information, and proving that the information is correct by showing the reader what is applied to the specific ideals.
    • examples: 
    • essays, narratives and other non-fiction
  14. Figures of speech
    • uses of language that are not meant to be taken literally.
    • examples:
    • metaphors, similes, and symbols
  15. Formative Assessments
    • informal assessments that are ongoing, classroom-based, and oriented toward individual achievements
    • example:
    • portfolios
    • observation
    • student discussions
    • self-assessment
  16. Interior monologue
    (in fiction) reveals a character's thoughts and feelings.
  17. Irony
    • the tension, or difference between, what is expected and what is actually the case.
    • example: 
    • The fire station burning down would be ironic
  18. Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
    The innate structural predisposition of the human brain to make sense of language (to acquire the specific sets of phonemes, morphemes, and syntactical structures that belong to any specific language system)
  19. Metacognition
    The awareness that there are skills that can increase learning efficiency and effectiveness; learning how to learn
  20. Metaphor
    • It is a comparison between two unlike things as though they were the same.
    • example: Broken heart, Sea of sadness, Roller coaster of emotions
  21. Meter
    The rhythm of a poem. it may be regular or irregular
  22. Morphemes
    the sound sequences (sequences of phonemes) that convey meaning
  23. Morphology
    The study of word structure
  24. Narrative Writing
    Writing that tells a story
  25. Natural Language Acquisition
    a type of learning modeled on the way young children absorb a native tongue (as opposed to traditional language learning, with its rule-oriented teaching)
  26. Noam Chomsky's Theory of Universal Grammar
    Linguist Noam Chomsky made the argument that the human brain contains a limited set of rules for organizing language. In turn, there is an assumption that all languages have a common structural basis. This set of rules is known as universal grammar.
  27. Onomatopoeia
    the naming of a thing or action by a vocal imitation of the sound associated with it (as buzz, hiss)
  28. Parable
    a short allegorical story designed to illustrate or teach some truth, religious principle, or moral lesson.
  29. Parallelism
    • a structural device in which words, phrases, or ideas are repeated, once or several times.
    • example:
    • In the famous speech of Martin Luther King, Jr., the phrase “I have a dream” was repeated often and is an example of parallelism for clarity and emphasis.
  30. Parody
    a humorous subgenre of fiction that mimics the style and conventions of another, serious work.

    often used to write humorous music
  31. Personification
    the attribution of human qualities to non-human animals or objects.
  32. Persuasive writing
    writing designed to convince the reader of the author's point of view
  33. Phonemes
    sounds that signal differences in meaning (the sounds of letters)
  34. Phonological awareness (Phonemic awareness)
    the understanding that words are composed of sounds called phonemes
  35. Phonology
    the study of the way sounds function in language
  36. Plot
    what happens in a story, the narrative structure of a fictional story.
  37. point of view
    the perspective from which the story is being told
  38. Pragmatics
    the study of the social, physical, and cultural contexts of language use
  39. Protagonist
    the main character in a work of fiction
  40. Relative Clause
    a dependent clause that augments an independent clause with additional information, but which cannot stand alone as asentence. Dependent clauses either modify the independent clause of a sentence or serve as a component of it.
  41. Rhetoric
    the term for a collection of strategies and language choices writers use to achieve their goals
  42. Satire
    exposes, often humorously, the follies, foibles (minor weakness), and vices of a group or system (e.g. institutions, ideas, or societies)
  43. Scaffolding
    the support a teacher provides to enable a student to extend his knowledge
  44. Semantics
    the study of the ways in which sounds, words, sentences, etc., are used to convey meaning in language, including the effect of context on meaning
  45. Setting
    the environment in which a story takes place
  46. Simile
    • a comparison of two dissimilar things using like or as.
    • example:
    • the steak was like a rock.
  47. summative assessments
    • take place after a period of learning and are designed to evaluate how well the learning has taken place 
    • example
    • standardized testing, midterms, and final exams
  48. Symbol
    a use of figurative language in which a word or phrase signifies, or stands for, something else, in addition to itself
  49. Syntax
    the grammatical structure of sentences
  50. Theme
    the central or unifying concept of a work
  51. Tone
    a term for the attitude of an artistic work
  52. Universal Grammar
    the general properties that underlie and govern the development of all human languages
  53. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
    the difference between a child's capacity to solve a problem on their own and their ability to solve the problem with assitance