Medical Terminology Chapter 3

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  1. alimentary canal
    alternate name for the gastrointenstinal system
  2. deglutition
    process of swallowing food
  3. gustatory cortex
    area of the brain that receives and interprets tastes from the tongue
  4. mastication
    process of chewing. this is part of the process of mechanical digestion
  5. mucose
    mucous membrane that lines the gastrointestinal system and produces mucus
  6. oral cavity
    mouth.  Contains the hard palate, soft palate, uvula, tongue, gums, and teeth
  7. palate
    the hard bone and posterior soft tissues that form the roof of the mouth
  8. pharynx
  9. salivary glands
    three pairs - parotid, submandibular, and sublingual.  Secrete saliva into the mouth.
  10. uvula
    fleshy hanging part of the soft palate.  plays a role in speech and during swallowing
  11. cardia
    small area where the esophagus enters the stomach
  12. chyme
    partially digested food, saliva, and digestive enzymes in the stomach and small intestine
  13. esophagus
    flexible, muscular tube that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach
  14. fundus
    rounded, most superior part of the stomach
  15. lower esophageal sphincter LES
    muscular ring at the distal end of the esophagus. I keeps food in the stomach from going back into the esophagus
  16. peristalsis
    contractions of smooth muscle that propel a bolus of food, and then chyme, waste products, and water through the gastrointestinal tract
  17. pyloric sphincter
    muscular ring that keeps chyme in the stomach or opens to let chyme into the duodemum
  18. pylorus
    narrowing are of the stomach just before it joins the duodenum. It contains the pyloric sphincter.
  19. rugae
    deep folds in the gastric mucosa that expand to accommodate food
  20. stomach
    cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus
  21. appendix
    long, thin pouch on the exterior wall of the cecum.
  22. cecum
    short, pouch-like first part of the large intestine. the appendix is attached to the cecum's external wall
  23. colon
    longest part of the large intestine.  It consists of the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and the S-shaped sigmoid colon
  24. duodenum
    fist part of the small intestine.  It secretes the hormone cholecystokinin.
  25. haustra
    pouches in the wall of the large intestine that expand to accommodate the bulk of undigested materials
  26. ileum
    third part of the small intestine.  It connects to the cecum of the large intestine
  27. jejunem
    second part of the small intestine
  28. large intestine
    organ of absorption between the small intestine and the anus
  29. lumen
    open channel inside a tubular structure such as the esophagus, small intestine, and large intestine
  30. rectum
    final part of the large intestine
  31. small intestine
    organ of digestion between the stomach and the large intestine
  32. villi
    microscopic projections of the mucosa in the small intestine
  33. bile
    bitter fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder.  It is released into the duodenum to digest the fat in foods.  It contains bilirubin and biliverdin
  34. bile ducts
    bile produced by the liver flows through the hepatic ducts to the common hepatic duct, then to the common bile duct to the duodenum.
  35. celiac trunk
    part of the abdominal aorta where arteries branch off to take blood to the stomach , small intestine, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
  36. gallbladder
    small, dark green sac posterior to the liver that stores and concentrates bile.
  37. liver
    largest solid organ in the body.  It contains hepatocytes that produce bile
  38. mesentary
    thick sheet of peritoneum that supports the jejunum and ileum
  39. omentum
    broad, fatty apron of peritoneum.  It supports the stomach and protects the small intestine
  40. pancreas
    triangular organ located posterior to the stomach. it secretes digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase) into the duodenum
  41. peritoneum
    double-layer serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and surrounds each gastrointestinal organ.  It secretes peritoneal fluid to fill the spaces between the organs
  42. absorption
    process by which digested nutrients move through villi of the small intestine and into the blood
  43. amylase
    digestive enzyme in saliva that begins digestion of carbohydrates in teh mouth.  It is also secreted by the pancreas to finish the digestion of carbohydrates in the small intestine
  44. cholecystokinin
    hormone secreted by the duodenum when it receives fatty chyme from the stomach.  stimulates the gallbladder to release bile and the pancreas to release its digestive enzymes
  45. digestion
    the process of mechanically and chemically breaking down food into nutrients that can be used by the body
  46. emulsification
    process in which undigested materials and water are eliminated from the body
  47. enzymes
    proteins that speed up chemical reactions in the body
  48. flatus
    gas produces by bacteria that inhabit the large intestine
  49. gastrin
    hormone produced by the stomach.  It stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen in the stomach.
  50. hydrochloric acid
    strong acid produced by the stomach.  breaks down food, kills microorganisms in food and converts pepsinogen to pepsin
  51. lactase
    digestive enzyme from the villi in the small intestine. Breaks down lactose
  52. lipase
    digestive enzyme secreted by the pancreas.  Breaks down fat globules in the duodenum into fatty acids
  53. pepsin
    digestive enzyme in the stomach that breaks down protein foods into large protein molecules
  54. pepsinogen
    inactive substance produced by the stomach that is converted by hydrochloric acid to the digestive enzyme pepsin
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Medical Terminology Chapter 3
2013-05-30 21:40:50
Gastroenterology Vocab

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