Medical Terminology Chapter 3
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Medical Terminology Chapter 3
alternate name for the gastrointenstinal system
process of swallowing food
area of the brain that receives and interprets tastes from the tongue
process of chewing. this is part of the process of mechanical digestion
mucous membrane that lines the gastrointestinal system and produces mucus
mouth. Contains the hard palate, soft palate, uvula, tongue, gums, and teeth
the hard bone and posterior soft tissues that form the roof of the mouth
three pairs - parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. Secrete saliva into the mouth.
fleshy hanging part of the soft palate. plays a role in speech and during swallowing
small area where the esophagus enters the stomach
partially digested food, saliva, and digestive enzymes in the stomach and small intestine
flexible, muscular tube that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach
rounded, most superior part of the stomach
lower esophageal sphincter LES
muscular ring at the distal end of the esophagus. I keeps food in the stomach from going back into the esophagus
contractions of smooth muscle that propel a bolus of food, and then chyme, waste products, and water through the gastrointestinal tract
muscular ring that keeps chyme in the stomach or opens to let chyme into the duodemum
narrowing are of the stomach just before it joins the duodenum. It contains the pyloric sphincter.
deep folds in the gastric mucosa that expand to accommodate food
cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus
long, thin pouch on the exterior wall of the cecum.
short, pouch-like first part of the large intestine. the appendix is attached to the cecum's external wall
longest part of the large intestine. It consists of the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and the S-shaped sigmoid colon
fist part of the small intestine. It secretes the hormone cholecystokinin.
pouches in the wall of the large intestine that expand to accommodate the bulk of undigested materials
third part of the small intestine. It connects to the cecum of the large intestine
second part of the small intestine
organ of absorption between the small intestine and the anus
open channel inside a tubular structure such as the esophagus, small intestine, and large intestine
final part of the large intestine
organ of digestion between the stomach and the large intestine
microscopic projections of the mucosa in the small intestine
bitter fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It is released into the duodenum to digest the fat in foods. It contains bilirubin and biliverdin
bile produced by the liver flows through the hepatic ducts to the common hepatic duct, then to the common bile duct to the duodenum.
part of the abdominal aorta where arteries branch off to take blood to the stomach , small intestine, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
small, dark green sac posterior to the liver that stores and concentrates bile.
largest solid organ in the body. It contains hepatocytes that produce bile
thick sheet of peritoneum that supports the jejunum and ileum
broad, fatty apron of peritoneum. It supports the stomach and protects the small intestine
triangular organ located posterior to the stomach. it secretes digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase) into the duodenum
double-layer serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and surrounds each gastrointestinal organ. It secretes peritoneal fluid to fill the spaces between the organs
process by which digested nutrients move through villi of the small intestine and into the blood
digestive enzyme in saliva that begins digestion of carbohydrates in teh mouth. It is also secreted by the pancreas to finish the digestion of carbohydrates in the small intestine
hormone secreted by the duodenum when it receives fatty chyme from the stomach. stimulates the gallbladder to release bile and the pancreas to release its digestive enzymes
the process of mechanically and chemically breaking down food into nutrients that can be used by the body
process in which undigested materials and water are eliminated from the body
proteins that speed up chemical reactions in the body
gas produces by bacteria that inhabit the large intestine
hormone produced by the stomach. It stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen in the stomach.
strong acid produced by the stomach. breaks down food, kills microorganisms in food and converts pepsinogen to pepsin
digestive enzyme from the villi in the small intestine. Breaks down lactose
digestive enzyme secreted by the pancreas. Breaks down fat globules in the duodenum into fatty acids
digestive enzyme in the stomach that breaks down protein foods into large protein molecules
inactive substance produced by the stomach that is converted by hydrochloric acid to the digestive enzyme pepsin