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- water influence on geology
- flood --> artificially aged earth
- heat influence on geology
- hot core
- idea of old earth
- slow changed
- idea of Ice Age & glaciers
- movement of geographical features
idea of simpler life forms down the strata
idea of fossils show that most animals go extinct
fossil lines are related to current creatures
- "Principle of Geology" - current features could have been responsible for geological features given a long enough time
- ex.) river-->valleys-->mountains
Epic of Gilgamesh
flood narrative predating Hebrews
- solar system naturally formed by heated gas
- (no need for creator)
idea that comet impacted earth and changed development
mutations can be advantageous
Thomas Malthus & Adam Smith
- writings on resource and competition
- "survival of the fittest"
- has own theory of evolution; "Wallaces Line"
- -species change at a strict line/border
- bold, loved to argue
- argued on behalf of Darwin against Wilberforce on origins (1860)
Strum und Drang
- "Storm & Stress"
- emotion writing
- "The Sorrows of Young Werther"
- -about impressionable artist brutalized by society
- readers committed suicide
- "Madame Bovary"
- -reaction to French Revolution
- wrote reactions to Industrial Revolution
- emphasized importance of nature
- Lord Byron & "Byronic Hero"
- believed society owed him a living
- (for his music)
first to take pride in fame with a unique style
started Waltzes where men and women can touch in dance
"Ring Cycle" - 60 hour opera
Alexander von Humboldt
- first modern university
- -teach and research
- traveling naturalist
- Darwin followed him