Card Set Information
Learning and Memory
Procedure in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that triggers a reflexive response until the neutral stimulus alone comes to trigger a similar response.
Founded from Pavlov's Dog experiment
Works best when the conditioned stimulus comes before the unconditioned stimulus
A stimulus that triggers a response without conditioning
The automatic, unlearned, reflexive reaction to a stimulus.
An originally neutral stimulus that now triggers a conditioned response.
Response triggered by the conditioned stimulus
ex. salivation after tone
Gradual disappearance of a conditioned response
Relearning of a conditioned response following extinction.
Temporary reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction
Process in which a conditioned response is triggered by stimuli similar to the original conditioned stimulus
Ex. Fear of dogs after being bitten
process through which people learn to differentiate among similar stimuli and respond appropriately to each one
Second order processing
Process through which a conditioned stimulus comes to signal another conditioned stimulus that is already associated with an unconditioned stimulus.
Ex. Painful Medical Procedure (UCS), doctors white coat (CS),white coats in general/Pharmacist at the drug store (CS)
Reduced responsiveness to a repeated stimulus
Law of effect
Law stating that if a response made in the presence of a particular stimulus is rewarded, the same response is more likely to occur when that stimulus is encountered
Process in which responses are learned on the basis of their rewarding or punishing consequences.
Response that has some effect on the world
Stimulus event that increases the probability that the response immediately preceding it will occur again.
Stimuli that strengthen a response if they follow that response
Can include food, smiles, money, and other desirable outcomes
Removal of unpleasant stimuli such as pain or noise
Process of learning responses that stop an aversive stimulus
Ex. Mute button during commercials; taking Tylenol for headache; giving a whining child a toy
Process of learning particular responses that avoid an aversive stimulus
Stimuli that signal whether reinforcement is available if a certain response is made.
Reinforcement of responses that come successively closer to some desired response.
Events or Stimuli that satisfy physiological needs basic to survival, such as food or water
Rewards that people or animals learn to like.
Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect
Phenomenon in which behaviors learned under a partial reinforcement schedule are more difficult to extinguish than those learned on a continuous reinforcement schedule
Fixed Ratio (FR) Schedules
Provide reinforcement following a fixed number of responses
Variable-Ratio (VR) schedules
Call for reinforcement after a certain number of response but the number varies
Fixed Interval (FI) schedule
provide reinforcement for the first response that occurs after some fixed time has passed since the last reward
reinforce the first response after some period of time, but the amount of time varies unpredictably
Presentation of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a pleasant one following some behavior
Process in which a person or animal stops trying to exert control after experience suggests that no control is possible
Learning that is not demonstrated at the time it occurs
Mental representation of the environment
Sudden understanding of what is required to solve a problem
Learning by watching the behavior of others
Kind of observational learning through which a person is influenced by watching or hearing about the consequences of others behavior
The process of putting information into a form that the memory system can accept and use.
First basic memory process
Mental representations of stimuli as sounds such as tune or a rhyme.
Mental representations of experiences by their general meaning such as an image of a face
Mental representations of experiences by their general meaning
Process of maintaining information in the memory system over time
Process of recalling information stored in memory
Memory for events in one's own past
Memory for generalized knowledge about the world.
Ex. Twelve items make a dozen, a hammer is a tool
Type of memory containing information about how to do things
Process through which people deliberately try to remember something
Unintentional recollection and influence of prior experiences
Levels of processing model
Model of memory suggesting that differences in how well something is remembered reflect the degree or depth of mental processing
Includes maintenance and elaborative rehearsal
Memorization method that involves repeating information over and over to keep it in memory
Memorization method that relates new information to information already stored in memory
Transfer-Appropriate Processing Model
Model suggesting that memory depends on how the encoding process matches up with what is later retrieved
Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) models
Memory models in which new experiences are seen as changing one's overall knowledge base
Information Processing Model
Model suggesting that information pass through sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory in order to become firmly embedded in memory
Type of memory that is very brief, but last long enough to connect one impression to the next
Memory systems that briefly hold incoming information
Process of focusing mental resources on only part of the stimulus field
Short-Term Memory (STM)
Stage of memory in which information normally last less than twenty seconds; a component of working memory
Memory that allows us to mentally work with, or manipulate, information being held in short term memory.
Immediate Memory Span
Maximum number of items a person can recall perfectly after one presentation of the items
Stimuli that are perceived as unit or meaningful groupings of information,
Method for determining how long unrehearsed information remains in short term memory
Long Term Memory
Stage of memory for which the capacity to store new information is believed to be unlimited
Characteristic of memory in which recall is particularly good for the first two or three items in a list
Characteristic of memory in which recall is particularly good for the last few items on a list
Stimuli that allow or help people to recall information.
Encoding Specificity Principle
Principle stating that the ability of a cue to aid retrieval depends on how well it taps into information that was originally encoded.
Retrieval is most successful when it occurs in the same environment in which the information was originally learned
State Dependent Memory
Retrieval is most successful when people are in the same psychological state as when they originally learned the information
In semantic network theories of memory, a principle that explains how information is retrieved.
Mental Representations of categories of objects, places, events, and people
Method of savings
Method for measuring and forgetting
Gradual disappearance of information from memory
Cause of forgetting whereby new information placed in memory interferes with the ability to recall information already in memory.
Cause of forgetting whereby previously learned information interferes with he ability to remember new information.
Loss of memory for events that occur after a brain injury. People who suffer are unable to form new memories.
loss of memory for events that occurred prior to a brain injury.
Strategies for organizing information in order to remember it.