psy 499

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Jbarmore
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221826
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psy 499
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2013-05-31 17:10:48
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Learning and Memory
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  1. Classical Conditioning
    • Procedure in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that triggers a reflexive response until the neutral stimulus alone comes to trigger a similar response.
    • Founded from Pavlov's Dog experiment
    • Works best when the conditioned stimulus comes before the unconditioned stimulus
  2. Unconditioned Stimulus
    A stimulus that triggers a response without conditioning
  3. Unconditioned Response
    The automatic, unlearned, reflexive reaction to a stimulus.
  4. Conditioned Stimulus
    • An originally neutral stimulus that now triggers a conditioned response.
    • Ex. Pavlov-Tone
  5. Conditioned Response
    • Response triggered by the conditioned stimulus
    • ex. salivation after tone
  6. Extinction
    Gradual disappearance of a conditioned response
  7. Reconditioning
    Relearning of a conditioned response following extinction.
  8. Spontaneous Recovery
    Temporary reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction
  9. Stimulus generalization
    • Process in which a conditioned response is triggered by stimuli similar to the original conditioned stimulus
    • Ex. Fear of dogs after being bitten
  10. stimulus discrimination
    process through which people learn to differentiate among similar stimuli and respond appropriately to each one
  11. Second order processing
    • Process through which a conditioned stimulus comes to signal another conditioned ¬†stimulus that is already associated with an unconditioned stimulus.
    • Ex. Painful Medical Procedure (UCS), doctors white coat (CS),white coats in general/Pharmacist at the drug store (CS)
  12. Habituaiton
    Reduced responsiveness to a repeated stimulus
  13. Law of effect
    Law stating that if a response made in the presence of a particular stimulus is rewarded, the same response is more likely to occur when that stimulus is encountered
  14. Operant Conditioning
    Process in which responses are learned on the basis of their rewarding or punishing consequences.
  15. Operant
    Response that has some effect on the world
  16. Reinforcer
    Stimulus event that increases the probability that the response immediately preceding it will occur again.
  17. Positive Reinforcers
    • Stimuli that strengthen a response if they follow that response
    • Can include food, smiles, money, and other desirable outcomes
  18. Negative Reinforcers
    Removal of unpleasant stimuli such as pain or noise
  19. Escape conditioning
    • Process of learning responses that stop an aversive stimulus¬†
    • Ex. Mute button during commercials; taking Tylenol for headache; giving a whining child a toy
  20. Avoidance Conditioning
    Process of learning particular responses that avoid an aversive stimulus
  21. Discriminative Stimuli
    Stimuli that signal whether reinforcement is available if a certain response is made.
  22. Shaping
    Reinforcement of responses that come successively closer to some desired response.
  23. Primary Reinforcers
    Events or Stimuli that satisfy physiological needs basic to survival, such as food or water
  24. Secondary Reinforcers
    Rewards that people or animals learn to like.
  25. Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect
    Phenomenon in which behaviors learned under a partial reinforcement schedule are more difficult to extinguish than those learned on a continuous reinforcement schedule
  26. Fixed Ratio (FR) Schedules
    Provide reinforcement following a fixed number of responses
  27. Variable-Ratio (VR) schedules
    Call for reinforcement after a certain number of response but the number varies
  28. Fixed Interval (FI) schedule
    provide reinforcement for the first response that occurs after some fixed time has passed since the last reward
  29. Variable-Interval (VI)
    reinforce the first response after some period of time, but the amount of time varies unpredictably
  30. Punishment
    Presentation of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a pleasant one following some behavior
  31. Learned Helplessness
    Process in which a person or animal stops trying to exert control after experience suggests that no control is possible
  32. Latent Learning
    Learning that is not demonstrated at the time it occurs
  33. Cognitive Map
    Mental representation of the environment
  34. Insight
    Sudden understanding of what is required to solve a problem
  35. Observational Learning
    Learning by watching the behavior of others
  36. Vicarious Conditioning
    Kind of observational learning through which a person is influenced by watching or hearing about the consequences of others behavior
  37. Encoding
    • The process of putting information into a form that the memory system can accept and use.
    • First basic memory process
  38. Acoustic Codes
    Mental representations of stimuli as sounds such as tune or a rhyme.
  39. Visual codes
    Mental representations of experiences by their general meaning such as an image of a face
  40. Semantic Codes
    Mental representations of experiences by their general meaning
  41. Storage
    Process of maintaining information in the memory system over time
  42. Retrieval
    Process of recalling information stored in memory
  43. Episodic Memory
    Memory for events in one's own past
  44. Semantic memory
    • Memory for generalized knowledge about the world.¬†
    • Ex. Twelve items make a dozen, a hammer is a tool
  45. Procedural Memory
    Type of memory containing information about how to do things
  46. Explicit memory
    Process through which people deliberately try to remember something
  47. Implicit Memory
    Unintentional recollection and influence of prior experiences
  48. Levels of processing model
    • Model of memory suggesting that differences in how well something is remembered reflect the degree or depth of mental processing
    • Includes maintenance and elaborative rehearsal
  49. Maintenance Rehearsal
    Memorization method that involves repeating information over and over to keep it in memory
  50. Elaborative Rehearsal
    Memorization method that relates new information to information already stored in memory
  51. Transfer-Appropriate Processing Model
    Model suggesting that memory depends on how the encoding process matches up with what is later retrieved
  52. Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) models
    Memory models in which new experiences are seen as changing one's overall knowledge base
  53. Information Processing Model
    Model suggesting that information pass through sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory in order to become firmly embedded in memory
  54. Sensory Memory
    Type of memory that is very brief, but last long enough to connect one impression to the next
  55. Sensory Registers
    Memory systems that briefly hold incoming information
  56. Selective attention
    Process of focusing mental resources on only part of the stimulus field
  57. Short-Term Memory (STM)
    Stage of memory in which information normally last less than twenty seconds; a component of working memory
  58. Working Memory
    Memory that allows us to mentally work with, or manipulate, information being held in short term memory.
  59. Immediate Memory Span
    Maximum number of items a person can recall perfectly after one presentation of the items
  60. Chunks
    Stimuli that are perceived as unit or meaningful groupings of information,
  61. Brown-Peterson Procedure
    Method for determining how long unrehearsed information remains in short term memory
  62. Long Term Memory
    Stage of memory for which the capacity to store new information is believed to be unlimited
  63. Primacy Effect
    Characteristic of memory in which recall is particularly good for the first two or three items in a list
  64. Recency Effect
    Characteristic of memory in which recall is particularly good for the last few items on a list
  65. Retrieval Cues
    Stimuli that allow or help people to recall information.
  66. Encoding Specificity Principle
    Principle stating that the ability of a cue to aid retrieval depends on how well it taps into information that was originally encoded.
  67. Context-Dependent Memories
    Retrieval is most successful when it occurs in the same environment in which the information was originally learned
  68. State Dependent Memory
    Retrieval is most successful when people are in the same psychological state as when they originally learned the information
  69. Spreading Activation
    In semantic network theories of memory, a principle that explains how information is retrieved.
  70. Schemas
    Mental Representations of categories of objects, places, events, and people
  71. Method of savings
    Method for measuring and forgetting
  72. Decay
    Gradual disappearance of information from memory
  73. Retroactive Interference
    Cause of forgetting whereby new information placed in memory interferes with the ability to recall information already in memory.
  74. Proactive Interference
    Cause of forgetting whereby previously learned information interferes with he ability to remember new information.
  75. Anterograde Amnesia
    Loss of memory for events that occur after a brain injury. People who suffer are unable to form new memories.
  76. Retrograde Amnesia
    loss of memory for events that occurred prior to a brain injury.
  77. Mnemonics
    Strategies for organizing information in order to remember it.

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