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  1. Characteristics of a eukaryote
    • membrane bound nucleus
    • genome - linear chromosomes
    • membrane bound organelles
  2. 2 forms of Fungi (also known as mycetae)
    • macroscopic - mushrooms and puffballs
    • microscopic - molds and yeasts
    •      * molds - filamentous
    •      * yeasts - unicellular
    •      * dimorphic - display both mold and yeast characteristics. dependent on environment (usually temp)
  3. mold structure
    hyphae - threadlike filaments
  4. Types of Hyphae
    • vegetative - spread out on medium, absorbs nutrients
    • reproductive - support fruiting bodies containing mold spores
    • septate - individual cells are separated by cross wall
    • nonseptate - coenocytic- lack cross walls, cytoplasms intermixes, appears like a multinucleated cell
  5. asexual reproduction
    mitosis, cells identical to mother cell
  6. sexual reproduction
    meiosis to produce gametes; gametes (1N) will fuse to produce a zygote (2N)
  7. 4 forms of asexual reproduction
    • sporangiospores - spores contained in a sac called a sporangium
    • conidia - spore, not contained in a sac; branch off of a conidiophore
    • budding - yeast use this method, mother cell pinches off a daughter cell.  as the daughter forms it's called a blastospore.
    • arthrospore - fragments of hyphae break off and start a new colony. ex: athletes foot
  8. chytridomycota
    chytrids; produce a zoospore with a flagellum to swim; free living or parasites.  ex: bachachytrium dendrobatidis; responsible for killing frogs and fish
  9. glomerocytes
    • form mycorrhizae, symbiotic with plant roots; increased plant growth with the fungus
    •      * ectomycorrhizae - assoc. with surface of plant roots
    •      * endomycorrhizae - within plant roots
  10. zygomycota
    produce zygospores as part of sexual reproduction
  11. ascomycota
    ascospores in a sac called an ascus, sexual reproduction
  12. basidiomycota
    basidiospores are produced by mother cell, basidium mushrooms sexual reproduction
  13. algae
    photosynthetic, contain pigments to absorb sunlight; range from unicellular, colonial, filamentous, multicellular
  14. environment of protozoa
    aquatic or parasitic
  15. structures of protozoa
    • cytoplasm- 1. ectoplasm (toward edges, clear outer region) 2. endoplasm (central, observe organelles and granules)
    • pellicle - complex that forms with the cell membrane, rigid and maintains shape
    • contractile vacoule - pumps out excess H2O
  16. growth and nutrition of protozoa
    heterotrophs - saprobes (fedding on dead or decaying matter), phagocytize bacteria, engulf other protozoa
  17. life cycle of protozoa
    • trophozoite - active feeding stage
    • cyst - dormant, resistant to some environmental stress, can survive stomach acid
    • reproduction - asexual (binary fission, mitosis) or sexual (conjugation)
    • classification - based on DNA and structures
  18. classification of protozoa
    • alveolates
    • amoebozoa
    • slime molds
    • cercozoa
    • euglenozoa
    • diplomonadida
    • parabasala
  19. alveolates
    contain small membrane bound cavities beneath membrane surface, called alveoli; may help with osmotic pressure.  3 groups (ciliates, apicomplexans, and dinoflagellates)
  20. ciliates
    convered with cilia for motility; cilia arrangement - spiral or longitudinal arrangement. ex: balantidium coli (animal feces)
  21. apicomplexans
    no motility, obligate parasites of animals, complex at tip assists with host penetration. ex:  plasmodium species (malaria), cryptosporidium species (GI tract), toxoplasma gondii (toxoplasmosis)
  22. dinoflagellates
    marine or freshwater phototrops - photosynthesis part of plankton; 2 flagella - to spin and to move forward.  armor plates made of cellulose.  ex: red tide; gonyalaux makes a neurotoxin
  23. protista
    the kingdom protista includes both algae and protozoa
  24. amoebozoa
    • move with lob shaped pseudopods.
    •      a) entamoebas- intestinal parasites.  ex:  entamoeba histolytica.  can cause amoeboid dysentery. 
  25. dysentery
    bloody mucoid stools; inflammation of the intestines
  26. slime molds
    fruiting bodies with spores in life cycle.  Includes cellular or plasmodial slime molds.
  27. cellular slime molds
    • haploid (1N) cells that are active feeding
    • the cells congregate and form a "slug" which is a pseudoplasmodium
    • slug stops and forms a fruiting body
    • ex:  dictostelium
  28. plasmodial slime mold
    • plasmodium - single mas of protoplasm, multinucleated
    • ex:  physarium
  29. cercozoa
    • feed via thread like pseudopodia
    • shell with holes
    • marine organisms
    • 2 groups:  foraminifera and radiolaria
  30. foraminifera
    • cercozoa
    • calcium carbonate shell, look snail like
    • die to form limestone
  31. radiolaria
    • shells (tests) made of silica
    • die and settle on ocean floor
  32. euglenozoa
    • 2 groups
    • euglenids- photoautotrophs, have chlorophyl, aquatic. ex: euglena - food for the "bigger ones"
    • kinetoplastids - single large mitochondrion called a kinetoplast.  ex: trypanosomes.  include african sleeping sickness and chagas disease
  33. diplomonadida
    contain 2 equal sized nuclei; lack mitochondria, have a mitosome for citric acid cycle and ETS.  ex: giardia intestinalis
  34. parabasala
    lack mitochondria, have hydrogenosome for anaerobic respiration.  ex:  trichomonas vaginalis
  35. helminthes
    platyhelminthes - flat worms, hermaphroditic
  36. 3 classes of helminthes
    • turbellaria- free living, planaria
    • trematoda - flukes, leaflike
    • cestoda - segmented tapeworms
  37. hosts for helminthes
    • intermediate host - egg develops into larvae
    • definitive (final) host - larvae reach adulthood, sexually mature
  38. life cycle D - schistosoma mansoni
    • eggs hatch in water to release miracidea
    • miracidia swim to and infect the intermediate host
    • within the water snail the miracidium become larvae (cercaria)
    • cercaria does one of 3 things:  1. burrows into final host (human) through skin and enters blood and ultimately liver. 2. enters fish that is then consumed by human raw or under cooked. 3.  becomes metacercaria that is then consumed by human
    • the final host sheds eggs in feces
  39. cestoda
    • tapeworms
    • long ribbonlike, segmented worms
    • parasites, GI tract of animals
  40. aschelminthes
    • round worms
    • GI tract complete (mouth to anus)
    • males and females
    • includes pinworms
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2013-06-04 20:15:52

chapter 5
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