A malignant disease of hematopoietic tissue, characterized by replacement of normal bone marrow elements with abnormal (neoplastic) blood cells:
A rapidly progressive disease characterized by an abnormal expansion of immature cells or blasts:
A slowly progressive disorder characterized by an abnormal expansion of mature cells:
Leukemia can be divided into two major cell types:
Myelogenous and lymphocytic
What are the most common types of leukemia that occur in older adults?
-Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)
-Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
What is the most common form of leukemia in children?
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
What leukemia, whether lymphoid or myeloid lineage, is generally considered to be a disease of adults?
Chronic or Acute Leukemia—All ages, clinical onset is sudden, immature leukemic cells, anemia, thrombocytopenia, variable WBC count, mild organomegaly:
Chronic or Acute Leukemia—Adults, clinical onset is insidious, mature leukemic cells, mild anemia, mild thrombocytopenia, increased WBC count, prominent organomegaly:
Abrupt onset of signs and symptoms of only a few weeks, weakness, bleeding abnormalities, flu-like symptoms all reflect the failure of bone marrow to produce adequate normal cells; caused by the proliferation and accumulation of leukemic cells in the marrow:
A myeloid or granulocytic sarcoma is defined as a tumor mass of myeloid cells outside of the marrow and may be the first evidence of:
Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Gingival hypertrophy and oral lesions are primarily seen in:
Acute Monoblastic Leukemia
A mediastinal mass resulting from thymic involvement is a hallmark of:
T-ALL (thymic acute lymphoblastic leukemia)
Bone or joint pain, caused by pressure of expanding leukemic call population in the marrow cavity, commonly accompanies:
When are Myelodysplastic Syndromes more common?
Patients over 50 with unexplained and persistent anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and/or monoctyosis.
What are the major characteristics of AML?
1. Morphology - medium to large blasts, more cytoplasm than lymphoblasts, cytoplasmic granules, Auer rods
2. Cytochemistry - Positive peroxidase and Sudan black; negative TdT
3. Extramedullary and focal disease - Common in spleen and liver; less common in lymph nodes and CNS
What are the major characteristics of ALL and ALL?
1. Morphology - Small to medium blasts, scarce cytoplasm, no granules; fine nuclear chromatin and indistinct nucleoli
2. Cytochemistry - Negative peroxidase and Sudan black; positive TdT
3. Extramedullary and focal disease - common in lymph nodes, spleen, liver, CNS, and glands