Hematology Chapter 16: Exam IV

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Hematology Chapter 16: Exam IV
2013-06-02 16:49:52

Hematology, Leukemias
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  1. A malignant disease of hematopoietic tissue, characterized by replacement of normal bone marrow elements with abnormal (neoplastic) blood cells:
  2. A rapidly progressive disease characterized by an abnormal expansion of immature cells or blasts:
    Acute Leukemia
  3. A slowly progressive disorder characterized by an abnormal expansion of mature cells:
    Chronic leukemia
  4. Leukemia can be divided into two major cell types:
    Myelogenous and lymphocytic
  5. What are the most common types of leukemia that occur in older adults?
    • -Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)
    • -Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
  6. What is the most common form of leukemia in children?
    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
  7. What leukemia, whether lymphoid or myeloid lineage, is generally considered to be a disease of adults?
    Chronic Leukemia
  8. Chronic or Acute Leukemia—All ages, clinical onset is sudden, immature leukemic cells, anemia, thrombocytopenia, variable WBC count, mild organomegaly:
    Acute Leukmia
  9. Chronic or Acute Leukemia—Adults, clinical onset is insidious, mature leukemic cells, mild anemia, mild thrombocytopenia, increased WBC count, prominent organomegaly:
    Chronic Leukemia
  10. Abrupt onset of signs and symptoms of only a few weeks, weakness, bleeding abnormalities, flu-like symptoms all reflect the failure of bone marrow to produce adequate normal cells; caused by the proliferation and accumulation of leukemic cells in the marrow:
    Acute Leukemia
  11. A myeloid or granulocytic sarcoma is defined as a tumor mass of myeloid cells outside of the marrow and may be the first evidence of:
    Acute Myeloid Leukemia
  12. Gingival hypertrophy and oral lesions are primarily seen in:
    Acute Monoblastic Leukemia
  13. A mediastinal mass resulting from thymic involvement is a hallmark of:
    T-ALL (thymic acute lymphoblastic leukemia)
  14. Bone or joint pain, caused by pressure of expanding leukemic call population in the marrow cavity, commonly accompanies:
    Acute Leukemias
  15. When are Myelodysplastic Syndromes more common?
    Patients over 50 with unexplained and persistent anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and/or monoctyosis.
  16. What are the major characteristics of AML?
    • AML
    • 1. Morphology - medium to large blasts, more cytoplasm than lymphoblasts, cytoplasmic granules, Auer rods
    • 2. Cytochemistry - Positive peroxidase and Sudan black; negative TdT
    • 3. Extramedullary and focal disease - Common in spleen and liver; less common in lymph nodes and CNS
  17. What are the major characteristics of ALL and ALL?
    • 1. Morphology - Small to medium blasts, scarce cytoplasm, no granules; fine nuclear chromatin and indistinct nucleoli
    • 2. Cytochemistry - Negative peroxidase and Sudan black; positive TdT
    • 3. Extramedullary and focal disease - common in lymph nodes, spleen, liver, CNS, and glands