Micro Chapter 19

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Micro Chapter 19
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2009-12-04 03:16:29
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Chapter 19
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  1. List the protective secretions of the skin.
    • Keratin.
    • Sweat.
    • Sebum.
    • Mucous Membranes.
  2. How does Keratin protect your body?
    water-proofing protein which prevents water soluble substances from entering body.
  3. How does Sweat protect your body?
    High salt concentration of sweat inhibits most microorganisms.
  4. How does Sebum protect your body?
    • oily secretion prodcued by sebaceous gland acidic nature discourages growth of pathogens.
    • skin normal flora can survive low pH and high salt effects.
  5. How do Mucous Membranes protect your skin?
    • line respiratory, digestive and urogential systems.
    • Globlet cells w/n the epithelial layer produce mucus which prevents drying and cracking of mucous membranes.
    • Servs to trap microbes before an infection can be established.
  6. What is the causative agent for Staphylococcal Infections?
    Staphylococcus aureus.
  7. What is the causative agent for Scalded Skin Syndrome?
    Strains of Staphylococcus aureus producing exfoliatin toxins A and B.
  8. What is the causative agent for Streptococcal Infections?
    streptococcus pyogenes.
  9. What is the causative agent for Impetigo Infections?
    • Streptococcus pyogenes.
    • Staphylococcus aureus.
    • Corynebacteria.
  10. What are the causative agent for Scarlet Fever?
    Streptococcus pyogenes infected with temperate phage.
  11. What is the causative agent for Necrotizing Fasciitis?
    Streptococcus pyogenes.
  12. What is the causative agent for Acne Vulgaris?
    Propionbacterium acnes.
  13. What is the causative agent for Burn Infections?
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
    • Strict aerobe, motile bacterium.
  14. What is the causative agent for Rubella?
    Rubella Virus (ssRNA virus)
  15. What is the causative agent for Rubeola?
    rubeola virus (ssRNA virus)
  16. What is the causative agent for Chickenpox and Shingles?
    • Varicella zoster virus (VZV) (dsDNAvirus).
    • A herpesvirus causes both diseases.
  17. What is the causative agent for Smallpox?
    variola virus.
  18. What is the causative agent for Warts?
    human papillomaviruses (HPV).
  19. What is the caustative agent for Kaposi's Sarcoma?
    Human Herpes Virus 8
  20. What is the causative agent for Keratinized Tissue?
    • dermatophytes.
    • Epidermophyton.
    • Trichophyton.
    • Microsporum.
  21. What is the causative agent for Subcutaneous Tissue?
    • Blastomycosis.
    • Candidiasis.
    • Maduramycosis.
  22. What is the causative agent of Opthalmia Neonatorum?
    • Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
    • Chlamydias.
  23. What is the causative agent of Conjunctivitis (pink eye)?
    • Hemophilus aegypticus.
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae.
    • others.
  24. What is the causative agent of Ocular Trachoma?
    Chlamydia trachomatis.
  25. What is the causative agent for Gas Gangrene?
    Clostridium perfringens.
  26. What is the causative agent for Buruli ulcer?
    Mycobacterium ulcerans.
  27. What is the causative agent of Animal bites?
    Pasteurella multocida.
  28. What is the function of the toxin for Staphylococcus aureus (Scalded Skin Syndrome)?
    exofoliation toxins A & B carried in bloodstream to epidermis causes layers of cells to peal apart.
  29. What is the function of toxin for Streptococcus pyogenes infected with temperate phage (Scarlet Fever)?
    • erthrogenic toxin (3kinds).
    • toxin circulates in bloodstreamm causing redness of skin.
    • (strawbery tongue, rash w/red bumps on chest and abdomen).
  30. What is the function of toxin in Streptococcus pyogenes (Necrotizing Fasciitis)?
    • Pyrogenic exotoxin A causes streptococcal shock.
    • Exotoxin B protease that destroys tissue proteins.
  31. What is the function of toxin Pseudomonas aeruginosa?
    produces tissue killing toxins that erode the skin.
  32. What is the causative agent for Arthropod bites?
    Pediculosis.
  33. What is the function of toxin Clostridium perfringens (Gas Gangrene)?
    gama-toxin and enzymes degrade tissue.
  34. What is the function of toxin of Pasteurella multocida?
    Produces endotoxin capsule helps organism evade phagocytosis.
  35. What is the major identifying symptom of Scalded Skin Syndrome?
    • Skin peels.
    • loss o body fluid.
    • susceptible to secondary infection.
  36. What is the major identifying symptom of Impetigo?
    pus-producing skin infections.
  37. What is the major identifying symptom of Scarlet Fever?
    • Strawberry tongue.
    • rash with red bumps on chest and abdomen.
  38. What is the major identifying symptom of Necrotizing Fasciitis?
    • destruciton of skin and muscle.
    • flesh eating bacteria.
  39. What is the major identifying symptom of Acne Vulgaris?
    • clogged glands.
    • Acne.
  40. What is the major identifying symptom of Rubella (German Measles)?
    • Causes skin rash.
    • Congenital rubella causes severe damage to embryo's organs.
    • Growth retardation.
    • Mental retardation.
    • Deafness.
  41. What is the major identifying symptom of Rubeola?
    • Fever.
    • Runny Nose.
    • Cough.
    • swollen, red weepy eyes.
    • Rash on forehead that spreads.
  42. What is the major identifying symptom of Chickenpox & Shingles?
    • Fever.
    • Rash.
    • Small red spots that blister and become moist developing crusty scabs.
    • Appears on head and face then body and extremities.
  43. What is the major identifying symptom of Smallpox?
    vesicles appear in mouth/throat spreading to face, forearms, hands and finally trunk & legs.
  44. What is the major identifying symptom of Warts?
    Genital respiratory oral and skin warts.
  45. What is the major identifying symptom of Kaposi's sarcoma?
    • growth of blood vessels in masses that easily rupture.
    • pink or purplish spots in the skin and viscera.
    • (usually found in immunosuppressed AIDS patients)
  46. What is the major identifying symptom of Opthamia neonatorum?
    • Inflammation of the cornea can lead to perforation and destruction of the cornea.
    • (babies given 1% silver nitrate at birth)
  47. What is the major identifying symptom of Conjunctivitis?
    • inflammation of conjunctiva.
    • eyelid swelling.
    • large amounts of pus.
  48. What is the major identifying symptom of Ocular Trachoma?
    severe, swollen conjunctiva causes eyelashes to turn inward causing scarring and destruciton of the cornea.
  49. What is the major identifying symptom of Gas Gangrene?
    • Fever.
    • Shock.
    • Blackening of skin.
    • Crepitant Tissue.
  50. What is the major identifying symptom of Buruli Ulcer?
    • painless nodule or papule in the skin.
    • leads to masive skin ulceration if not treated.
  51. What is the major identifying symptom of Arthropod bites?
    Nits.
  52. What is a Sty?
    Infection at the base of the eyelash.
  53. What is an Abscess?
    A larger deeper, pus-filled infection.
  54. What is unique about the strain of bacteria that causes Scarlet Fever?
    Strains of the Streptococcus pyogenes have been infected by a temperate phage that enables them to produce an erythrogenic toxin (red producing) that causes scarlet fever rash.
  55. Explain the function of lysozyme in tears.
    Lysozyme in tears break down bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan and inhibits bacterial growth.
  56. Explain how acne is caused.
    • Microorganisms feed on sebum and clog glands.
    • Lipases hydrolyze the sebum into free fatty acids.
    • Fatty acids irritate hair follicle and promote inflammation.
  57. How can a virus be latent, then reactivate to cause a different disease?
    • virus is sequestered in thoracic and trigeminal nerve cells after recession of chickenpox.
    • reactivation upon immunosuppression, cancer, spinal cord trauma, Xray, Chemotherapy, surgery causes lesions known as shingles.
  58. Why in the cases of shingles is the virus expressed along only a certain region of the body?
    The varicella-zoster virus is sequestered in thoracic and trigeminal nerve cells. When reactivated, the viruses spread from a ganglion along the pathway of its associated nerve(s).

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