Nematodes - Part III

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  1. Name the stomach worms of cattle
    • Haemonchus contortus
    • Ostertagia ostertagi
    • Trichostrongylus axei
    • Haemonchus placei
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    Severe hemorrhage in small intestine due to Bunostomum phlebotomum
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    Bunostomum phlebotomum eggs - High power
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    Oesophagostomum radiatum eggs High power
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    Palpable black nodules of Oesophagostomum radiatum in the lower small intestine
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    • Marshallagia marshalli
    • Egg near morula stage High power
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    Strongyloides papillosus
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    • Trichuris sp. eggs from a sheep
    • High power
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    • Parascaris equorum eggs with incomplete albuminous cover (a) and without cover (b)
    • Albumin is for nutrition and moisture - they lose it when it comes out of the intestines.
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    • Parascaris equorum eggs
    • High power
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    Metastrongylus sp. eggs
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    Physaloptera sp. egg
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    Grain mite egg - often confused with hookworm eggs
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    Dictyocaulus viviparous in the air passage of the cow
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    Pinpoint hemorrhage in the SI of a cow caused by Bunostomum phlebotomum (ruminant hookworm)
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    Mass of Parascaris eqourum removed from the small insterine of a naturally infected foal
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    • Gasterophilus intestinalis attached to white line area of stomach.
    • Gasterophilus nasalis (throat bot) attached to the duodenal musoca of naturally infected horse
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    Type of larvae:
    • Strongyloides stercoralis (mature Rhabditiform larvae)
    • This is a small nematode that produces infection in dogs, cats and man
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    Type of stool:
    • Strongyloides tumefaciens
    • When fully matured is found in the anterior half of the small intestine
    • They produce bright red diarrhea due to speed of evacuation of the bowels during diarrhea.
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    List another parasite that causes this
    Strongyloides tumefaciensS. stercoralis produce many mucosal nodules and the pit in each nodule is visible close up.
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    Micronema sp. are common horse parasites that invade the CNS. Slide shows adults and developing larvae in the perivascular space of the equine brain.
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    Esophagus of a rhabitoid nematode in a Micronema sp.
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    Strongylus sp. feeding on large intestinal mucosa
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    Small Strongylus worms on the rectal glove of a diarrheic 3 yr old
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    Lesions in the cranial mesenteric artery caused by migrating Strongylus vulgaris larvae
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    Strongylus asini an African species infecting zebras. This slide shows the lateral view of the anterior end - notice the mouth
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    Strongylus asini with numerous nodules filled with parasites in an infected zebra liver.
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    Syngamus trachea - (trachea worms) occluding the lumen in a pheasants trachea
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    Syngamus trachea - Section of the trachea with parasites in the lumen and attached to the mucosa
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    Also inhibits:
    • Stephanurus dentatus
    • Common kidney worm of pigs
    • Inhibits liver, lungs, spleen, muscles and spinal body cavities.
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    A single Stephanurus dentatus in the urethra.
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    Stephanurus dentatus adults in the perineal fat.
  33. What is the 1st & 2nd most common parasite in pigs? How is the parasite passed?
    • Ascaris suum
    • Stephanurus dentatus
    • Transmammary
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    Common name
    • Oesophagastomum columbianum
    • Sheep nodular worm
    • Common intestinal nematode of farm animals especially sheep and goats.
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    Name 3 parasites of the intestine that results in the above
    Oesophagostomum columbianum as well as Oesophagostomum radiatum, dentatum etc will enter the large intestine and penetrate the intestinal wall and cause inflammation and produce nodular formation.
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    Common name
    Type of life cycle
    • Chabertia ovina
    • Large-mouthed bowel worm
    • 12 mm in length
    • Direct life cycle
  37. Migration of Chabertia ovina
    Signs and Symptoms
    • The larvae penetrate the mucosa of the small intestine shortly after ingestion and later emerge and pass to the colon.
    • Cause severe damage to the colon with resulting congestion, ulceration and microhemorrhages (petechial hemorrhages) Infected sheep are unthrifty, feces soft, contain much mucus and may be streaked with blood. Quick immunity develops with these worms.
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    Ancylostoma caninum - eggs are passed in feces and infected larvae develop in the moist soil and are later ingested.
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    Hemorrhagic foci in the intestinal mucosa of a Coonhound caused by Ancylostoma caninum
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    Capsule of Ancylostoma caninum attched to canine intestine in histologic section.
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    Common Name
    • Haemonchus contortus worms present in a sheep abomasum.
    • Twisted stomach worm of the abomasum in sheep, cattle, goats and other ruminants
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    Common name
    • Ostertagia ostertagi
    • Brown stomach worm of ruminants
    • Dwells in the abomasum and intestines.
    • Slide shows bovine stomach lining with worms and cysts visible
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    Characteristic "leather" texture of massive, coalescent Ostertagia ostertagi infection.
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    Found in
    • Cooperiodes hepaticae
    • Nematodes of the genus Cooperiodes (Cooperia) are small reddish worms found in the small intestine, liver and other viscera of ruminants especially cattle.
    • This slide depicts sections of a bovine liver with greatly dilated bile ducts and worms present in the lumens of both ducts.
  45. The genus Trichostrongylus is comprised of apx. ____ species. 2 from _______ and the rest chiefly from ___________. Their life cycle and egg development is similar to hookworms
    • 35 species
    • birds
    • Domestic mammals
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    Trichostrongylus colubrifomis 
  47. _____________ lives in the abomasum of domestic and wild ruminants and in the GI systems of horses. It is one parasite common to the ruminant and horse.
    Trichostrongylus axei
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    Trichostyongylus also parasitizes man and has a somewhat high incident in the Orient. Severe diarrhea in an infected sheep pictured here.
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    Found in
    • Hyostrongylus rubidus
    • Red stomach worm of swine - found worldwide - usually occurs in pigs
    • Found in soil environments and on grass
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    Dictyocaulus viviparous is the lungworm of cattle, moose, elk, bison, deer, pigs and other large mammals
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    Dictyocaulus viviparous - lungworms
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    Diaphragmatic lobes infected with Pneumostrongylus
  53. Most Metastrongyles are called "______" and inhabit the ___________________ systems of ___________________________. Some of the more common genera are ___________.
    • lungworms
    • respiratory and/or circulatory
    • carnivores, rodents, primates and swine.
    • AelurostrongylusPneumostrongylus and Metastrongylus
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    Metastrongylus - infected lung in which the tip is completely replaced by granulomatous infiltrate.
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    Cystocaulus infection - the lung is almost completely replaced by developmental stages.
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    • Metastrongylus worms surrounded by fibrotic tissue.
    • Species: Porcine
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    Lesions of Protostrongylus verminous pneumonia in the lungs of Bighorn sheep
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    • Angiostrongylus cantonesis - common parasite of the pulmonary artery of rats in SE Asia and the South Pacific.
    • Slide shows rat lungs from 50 day old infection with 30 larvae present.
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    Toxocara canis in an open dog bowel
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    Toxocara canis - adults emerging from a cut made in a puppy small bowel movement at necropsy (primary method of diagnosis).
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    • Left= Toxocara canis Right= Toxascaris leonina
  62. __________ eggs are colorless with smooth shell and visible vitelline (outside covering) membranes
    _________are light brown with thicker, rougher coats and less prominent membranes.
    • T. leonina
    • T. canis
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    Ascaris lumbricoides - slide depicits excised surgical specimens
  64. ____________ is the largest nematode of the human intestine and the most prevalent parasite in the world - estimates are that __% of the world's population harbor worms.
    • Ascaris lumbricoides
    • 25%
Card Set:
Nematodes - Part III
2014-06-04 20:04:15
Nematodes Vet Tech Parasitology

Nematodes, Parasitology, Vet Tech
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