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What are the three general classes of hormones?
- Proteins and polypeptides
- Derivatives of tyrosine
What class of hormones do the adrenal cortex, ovaries, testies, and placenta secrete?
What class of hormones do anterior pituitary, posterior pituitary, pancreas, parathyroid secrete?
Proteins and polypeptides
What class of hormones do the thyroid and adrenal medulla secrete?
Derivatives of tyrosine
What are amino acids with more than 100 polypeptides called?
(T/F) Polypeptides and protein hormones are synthesized and used as needed?
False, They are synthesized and stored until needed
What is the most common form of hormone control used by the human body?
What type of hormone secretion control does insulin use?
How do steroid and thyroid hormones get to their target tissue?
They are bound to plasma proteins from which they must break free to become active and exit the cappillaries
How are peptide hormones and catecholamine (epinephrine and nor-epinephrine) excreted from the body?
They are water soluble thus they are degraded by enzymes in the blood and excreted through the kidneys
Where on the cell are the receptors for protein, peptide, and catecholamine (epinephrine and nor-epinephrine)?
On the cell membrane
Where in the cell are the primary receptors for the different steroid hormones mainly found?
Within the cytoplasm
Where in the cell are the receptors for thyroid hormones found?
What happens to GDP when it is bound to G protein subunit a?
GDP becomes inactive
What happens to GTP when is binds with G protein subunit a?
It becomes active
What structure sepearates the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis?
Where are the nerve cell bodies of the neurohypophysis found?
What are the hormones of the anterior pituitary gland?
- Follicle-stimulating hormone
- Luteinizing hormone
- Thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin)
- Growth hormone
What hormones are released from the posterior pituitary gland?
- Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)
What hormone from the hypothalamus is excitatory to thryroid stimulating hormone?
Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)
What does the secretion of corticotropin releasing hormone by the hypothalamus effect?
Excitatory to ACTH release
What effect does gonadotropin releasing hormone have on the anterior pituitary gland?
Excitatory on Luteinzing hormone
What hypothalmic hormone has an inhibitory effect on growth hormone in the anterior pituitary gland?
Somatostatin (growth hormone inhibitory factory)
What is the function of prolactin and where is it produced?
- Produced in the anterior pituitary gland
- Promotes mammary gland development and milk production
what is the cause of Sheehan syndrome?
What is a deficiency in GH, TSH, FSH, LH, and sometimes ACTH called?
Relative combined pituitary hormone deficiency
What are the three hormones that the thyroid gland secrete?
- Thyroxine (T4)
- Triiodothyronine (T3)
What hormone regulates the secretion of thyroid hormones and where is it secreted from?
- Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
- anterior pituitary gland
What disease is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies produced by immune system stimulate the thyroid to produced too much thyroid hormone?
What is the most common type of pituitary tumor?
Prolactinoma (tumor secretes prolactin)
Where is the iodine pump located?
thyroid follicular epithelial cells
What is Wolff-Chaikoff effect?
high levels of iodine inhibit iodine pump and thus inhibit thyroxine production
What is formed when two molecules of DIT are combined?
What is formed when one DIT molecule is bound to an MIT molecule?
What is the most characteristic sign of hyperthyroidism?
Fine muscle tremor
how does an increase in plasma thyroid hormone affect the anterior pituitary gland?
Decreases secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone
A patient with low levels of TSH in the blood plasma would indicate?
Defect in the production of TRH or TSH thus the anterior pituitary or hypothalamus must be the cause of the hypothyroidism
In a patient with high blood plasma TSH levels what would be the most likely cause of hypothyroidism?
Decreseed feedback inhibition due to low thyroid hormone levels thus the problem must be with the thyroid gland
What is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States of AMERICA??
What is the only thyroid pathology that causes pain?
If a baby is born with jaundice that lasts more than 21 days what is the probable etiology?
Underdeveloped Thyroid gland
Where is aldosterone secreted from and what is its function?
- Zona Glomerulosa of adrenal cortex
- Increase Na+ retention
- Increase K+ secretion
What inhibits CRH secretion and ATCH secretion?
Increased levels of cortisol
What disease presents with decreased increased K and decreased Na in the blood, Increased ACTH, decreased androgen hormones?
- Addison's disease
- Lack of aldosterone causes excretion of Na and retention of K.
- Lack of cortisol cannot complete negative feedback circle to inhibit the anterior pituitary gland from producing ACTH
How does hypocalcemia effect the nervous system
Hyperexcitation causes tetany
How does hypercalcemia effect the nervous system?
Depresses nervous system
How does PTH affect calcium and phosphate levels in the bone, urine, intestinal absorption?
- Bone = Increased calcium and phosphate absorption from the bone
- Urine = decreased calcium increase phosphate secretion
- Intestinal absorption = calcium and phosphate increased absorption
Where is calcitonin secreted from?
How does calcitonin effect calcium in the bone, urine, intestinal absorption?
- Bone = decreases ECF absorption of calcium from the bone
- Urine = increased calcium excretion
- Intestinal absorption = decreased absorption of calcium
What are the two main types of tissue in the pancrease and what are their functions?
- Acini - secrete digestive juices
- Islets of Langerhans - secrete insulin and glucagon into blood
What type of cells secrete insulin and what is there location?
Beta (central Islet of Langerhans)
What type of cell secretes glucagon and where is it located?
Alpha - Outer rim of islet
What type of cell secretes somatostatin and gastrin in the pancreas?
What increases blood glucose concentrations, blood fatty acid and ketoacid concentrations, urea production?
What is the most common cause of hyperparathyroidism?