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  1. Authoritarian Political System 
    political system in which all decisions related to governing the state are made by a small group of people or by one person
  2. Consensus Decision Making
    a form of decision making whereby individuals in a group share ideas, solution, and concerns to find a resolution that all member of the group can accept
  3. Direct Democracy 
    a form of democratic government in which people participate directly in political decision making.
  4. First Past the Post 
    • an electoral system in which the candidate with the most votes in an electoral district win the election.
    • This system is often contrasted with proportional representation, an alternative electoral method  used in many liberal democraticies.
  5. Interest Group 
    organization that seek to influence elected officials. Their goals is to encourage legislation that reflects their specific beliefs or values, or to prevent passage of legislation that does not reflect their values
  6. Party Solidarity 
    the idea that all members of a political party should be loyal to and support the official decisions of their party, and vote according to their party's position on an issue
  7. Plebiscite 
    a direct vote by citizens on a specific question submitted to them by their government to determine their wishes
  8. Proportional Representation 
    a system of voting where citizens vote directly for a party, and then representatives of each party are assigned to the legislature based on that party's share of popular support. This result in a fairly accurate representation within the legislature of the will of the people
  9. Referendum 
    a special vote in which all eligible citizens mat vote on an important issue put to them by a government. This is a form a of direct democracy.
  10. Representation by Population
    • Rep-by-Pop
    • a form of political representation in which a country is divided into voting districts or electoral ridings, with most containing approximately the same number of votes
  11. Representative Democracy 
    a form of democratic government  in which citizens elect candidates to represent them in government and to make decisions on their behalf often contrasted with direct democracy
  12. Will of People 
    the collective wishes of the people of state. A democratically elected government will usually attempt to determine these wishes and make decisions based on them
  13. Social Safety Net 
    government-funded services and assistance, which can help people through bad economic times
  14. Mixed Economy 
    • an economic system in which free-market principles are combined with some degree of government intervention, usually to regulate industry, moderate the boom-and bust nature of the free-market business cycle, and offer social welfare programs
    • government owns some key industries
  15. Free-Market Economy 
    • an economic system that operate with limited government intervention.
    • question regarding production and pricing of goods and services are decide through the free interaction of producers and comsumer
  16. Command Economy 
    summary 3
    • communism is a command economy 
    • government has high control over the economy 
    • centrally planned economy or public enterprise
  17. Command Economy 
    1. What will be produced
    2. How will goods ad services be products 
    3. To who will goods and services be distributed 
    4. Who will makes these decisions
    • 1. government --> studies and planning what the needs of society are 
    • 2. government owns ans sets quotas as to how much to make and service 
    • 3.base of the needs of people's and governmental goals 
    • 4. leaders and planning group (central planner)
  18. Free Market Economy 
    • is a theoretical concept and no true free market economies 
    • capitalism, Laissez-faire economy, and private enterprise
  19. Free Market Economy 
    1. What will be produced
    2. How will goods ad services be products 
    3. To who will goods and services be distributed 
    4. Who will makes these decisions
    • 1. supply and demands 
    • 2. companies decides to fulfill demand and make the most profits 
    • 3. those that can afford to buy 
    • 4. marketplace
  20. Mixed Economy 
    • there are some government intervention 
    • combined with free-market and command economy
  21. Mixed Economy 
    1. What will be produced
    2. How will goods ad services be products 
    3. To who will goods and services be distributed 
    4. Who will makes these decisions
    • 1. Supply and demand, if business do not provide an important good and service to society government would step in  
    • 2. both 
    • 3. those who can afford to pay, but those that cannot government provides social safety net
    • 4. supply and demand, but government can step in
  22. Egalitarianism 
    an ideology hat holds that all people should be treated as equals and have the same political, civil, economic, and social rights under the law
  23. Equitable Distribution of Income and Wealth
    the idea that all people should earn equal income for work of similar value and that people with larger incomes should pay taxes at a higher rate than people with lower incomes.
  24. Monopolies 
    companies with exclusive獨家 ownership or control of trade in a particular product or service, allowing them to control prices
  25. Progressive Taxation 
    a system in which a person's tax rate increases as his or her earnings increase. This type of taxation system aims to lessen the tax burden on those who have lower income.
  26. Flat Tax
    • a tax system in which taxpayers at all levels of income are taxed at the same rate. 
    • It is often contrasted with progressive taxes, where those who earn more pay a greater percentage of their income in taxes than do those who earn less.
  27. Roosevelt's New Deal 
    • Roosevelt's president of US believed that wealth brought with it responsibility to those in less fortunate
    • New Deal: government invested a lot of money and effort in the economy
  28. New Deal 
    a series of economic measure introduced by Roosevelt during the Great Depression, which increased the roe of the government in the economy
  29. Sweden's Approach to Economic Equality 
    Cradle-to-Grave System
    providing many social programs and services for all its citizens from birth until death.
  30. Direct Democracy 2 vs. Representative Democracy 2 
    • Direct Democracy
    • people participate directly in decisions that need to be made, which can be very time consuming
    • people are in charge of the decisions made for the society 
    • Representative Democracy  
    • elect candidates to represent their values and beliefs in government and to make decisions on their behalf 
    • there are different levels of government in which the representatives debate issues, make decisions and have specific responsibilities
  31.  How do interest groups influence democratic governments to recognize the will of the people??
    they allow individuals to voice their opinions
  32. What are the characteristics of Authoritarian political systems? (Hitler)  8

    • power is held by the leader 
    • individual rights and freedoms are not valued 
    • political participation is limited or controlled 
    • usually one party, are not allow to free tun against them 
    • dissent or speaking our against leader is not tolerated 
    • media are censored 
    • brain wash the youth 
    • military and police have a lot of power to enforce the will of the leader
  33. Absolute Monarchy 
    is a form of government where a king or queen inherits the right to rule
  34. Military Dictatorships 3
    • the most common form of authoritarian government 
    • control all key political positions
    • civilians老百姓 are seldom allowed to have any real power
  35. Minority Tyrannies 
    • form of government in which a small group of people have political control over the majority of the population
    • . Probablythe best known example of minority tyranny in the 20th century is that ofthe National Party government in South Africa (1948–1994), during whichonly white South Africans were allowed citizenship and full political rights.The South African government at this time used an “apartheid” system thatdivided people based on race. Under the apartheid system, it withdrew landownership, mobility rights, and many other rights from non-white SouthAfricans. Although the South African government at this time alloweddifferent political parties and held elections, only members of the whiteminority could vote and run for offic
  36. When would a government hold a referendum or plebiscite?
    • A referendum is binding, meaning the results must be carried through by the government.
    • A Plebiscite is not binding and the government can choose to ignore the results.
  37. Free Vote 
    • party members are free to vote as they choose rather than with their parties in
    • usually about controversial issues on which the party cannot agree to a party policy
  38. Parliamentary Democracy 
    a democratic form of government in which the party (or a coalition of parties) with the greatest representation in the parliament forms the government, with its leader becoming prime minister. It is responsible to a majority of the elected members of the legislative assemblyand to the head of state
  39. Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
    a document entrenched in the Constitutional Act, 1982 that lists and describes the fundamental rights and freedoms guaranteed toCanadians
  40. Constitution Act
    the act originally passed by the British Parliament (also known as the British North America Act, 1867) that established Canada and its form of government. It served as Canada’s constitution until 1982,when it became the basis for the Constitution Act of 1982,passed by the Canadian Parliament. The Constitution Act of 1982 includes, among other things, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and a description of the collective rights of Canada’s Aboriginal peoples.
  41. Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms
    a human rights code that was passed by the National Assembly of Québec in 1975.It includes protection of fundamental rights and freedoms and of political, equality, judicial, economic, and social rights.
  42. Governor General Responsibilities 
    1. 4
    2. 2
    3. 1
    4. 2
    • 1. to represent the Crown in Canada 
    • guarantee we have a prime minister 
    • signs official documents 
    • summons parliament 
    • gives assent to bills

    • 2. represent all Canadians and support our Sovereignty
    • acts as commander and chief to the armed forces
    • receives guests and dignitaries 

    • 3. to celebrate excellence 
    • gives awards and recognize the achievement of Canadians 

    • 4. bring Canadians together
    • promote national unity 
    • listens and meet Canadians
  43. Non-partisan
    not affiliated (connected) to any political party
  44. Main criticisms of the governor generals 3

    • appointed by the queen and chosen by the prime minister 
    • to expensive to maintain 
    • unnecessary and outdated
  45. Lieutenant-Governors 
    same as the governor general except that they work at a provincial level 
  46. Critiques of the Senate 3
    • not elected and can serve until 75
    • do not have to show up and still get paid 
    • just vote they away the political party that put them in votes
  47. Supporters of the Senate 2
    • do not have to be elected they can stay true to beliefs and take long term positions 
    • created engaging reports
  48. when has the Measures Act been use? 3

    • WWI 
    • WWII 
    • The FLQ Crisis
  49. War Measure Act in WWI 3
    power to arrest and detain or help anyone suspected of being disloyal to Canada or sympathetic to the enemy 

    majority were civilians rather than prisoners of war 

    • keep in campus and required to report to local authorities every month 
    • had right taken away
  50. War Measure Act in WWII 2
    • In war with Japan, Italy and Germany
    • Japanese were forced to leave their communities and relocate
  51. Emergencies Act 
    summary 2
    • replaced the war measure act
    • give grater protection to individuals rights and freedoms
  52. Emergencies Act meant to cover situation 4
    • public welfare - natural disasters 
    • public order - threat to the security to Canada
    • international - threat to Canadian sovereignty
    • war - war or other armed conflict involving Canada or any of its allies
  53. enemy aliens
Card Set:
2013-06-05 02:16:07

Chapter 11-14
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