block 4

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block 4
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2013-06-02 17:10:34
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Bryan Hall Block 4
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  1. A system of independent computers that are interconnected to share data and resources.
    Network
  2. Has resources associated with it, but nothing is shared with another system.
    Stand-alone computer
  3. An inefficient way to share resources that involved information being placed on removable media and walked over to another system that requires the data.
    "sneaker-net"
  4. Computers with hard drives that provide shared resources to the network users.
    Servers
  5. Computers that may or may not have a hard drive that access shared network resources provided by a server.
    Clients
  6. The wires or signaling that provide a path for communication.
    Media
  7. Data provided to clients by servers across the network.
    Shared Data
  8. Any service or device, such as files, printers, or other items, made available for use by members of the network.
    Shared resources
  9. Networks are divided into what three basic configurations?
    • -Centralized computing
    • -Peer-to-peer networks
    • -Server based networks
  10. Network configuration in which users gain access to the network from dumb terminals and servers perform the majority of functions and store permanent data.
    Centralized Computing
  11. Network configuration that is also called workgroups and usually consists of 10 or less computers, each functioning as a "client" and a "server" and having no centralized hierarchy. Not good for large scale operations where security must be tight.
    Peer to peer network
  12. Network configuration that is also called a domain and provides centralized control of network resources. Designed for more large-scale operations that require more security.
    Client/Server Based Network
  13. What are the three categories of networks?
    • Local Area Network (LAN)
    • Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
    • Wide Area Network (WAN)
  14. What are 3 common LAN technologies?
    • Ethernet (ThickNet, Thinnet, Unshielded Twisted Pair)
    • Token Ring (Token)
    • FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface)
  15. What system for switching data is primarily a WAN technology and capable of transmitting data at more than 1 Gbps?
    Synchronous optical network (SONET)
  16. _______ is the standard for optical transport and is capable of transmitting data in excess of 1 Gbps.
    Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)
  17. Switching data system that is the equivalent of SONET and defines optical-carrier levels and electrical-equivalent synchronous transport signals and is the recommendation of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
    Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
  18. Which switching method sends fixed-size packets over broadband and baseband LANs or WANs.
    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
  19. Multiport devices that can act as either:
    - hubs to forward data from one computer to another within a network
    - router-like devices to forward data at high speeds to remote networks
    ATM switches
  20. The most popular physical network architecture in use today.
    Ethernet
  21. What does ethernet use to regulate network access?
    Baseband (digital signaling) and Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)
  22. A packet of information transmitted as a single unit.
    Ethernet Frames
  23. List the three primary differences between the network mediums (cables).
    Distance, cost and ease of installation
  24. What are the four most common 10Mbps mediums?
    • 10Base2
    • 10Base5
    • 10BaseT
    • 10BaseFL
  25. Thinnet, using thin coaxial cable for a maximum length of 185 meters (10Mbps medium)
    10Base2
  26. Thicknet, using thick coaxial cable for a maximum length of 500 meters (10Mbps medium)
    10Base5
  27. Using UTP cable for a maximum length of 100 meters (10Mbps medium)
    10BaseT
  28. Using single or multi-mode fiber optic cable, the range can be extended with a Fiber Optic Inter-Repeater Link (FOIRL)
    10BaseFL
  29. Four pairs of telephone twisted pair (voice) wire (Cat 3, 4, or 5 UTP) for a maximum length of 100 meters (100Mbps medium)
    100BaseT4
  30. Two pairs of data grade twisted-pair wire (Cat 5 UTP or STP) for a maximum length of 100 meters (100Mbps medium)
    100BaseTX
  31. Uses fiber optic cable and can span up to 2000 meters using full-duplex operation (100Mbps medium)
    100BaseFX
  32. Four pairs of Category 5 or 6 UTP cable for a maximum length of 100 meters (1Gbps medium)
    1000BaseT
  33. Two pairs of 150-ohm shielded twisted pair cable for a maximum length of 25 meters.
    1000BaseCX
  34. A short laser wavelength on multimode fiber optic cable for a maximum length of 550 meters (1Gbps medium)
    1000BaseSX
  35. A long wavelength for a "long haul" fiber optic cable for a maximum length of 10 kilometers (1Gbps medium)
    1000BaseLX/LH
  36. An extended wavelength single-mode optical fiber for up to 100 kilometers (1Gbps medium)
    1000BaseZX
  37. The basic geometric layout of the network or the way in which the computers on the network are interconnected.
    Network Topology
  38. What are the two basic elements of network topologies?
    Logical and Physical
  39. The layout or actual appearance of the cabling scheme used on a network.
    Physical Topology
  40. Describes how data flows through a network.
    Logical Topology
  41. Simplest physical topology in which all devices are connected using a single cable (a trunk). A break in the trunk, backbone, or an unplugged cable in this topology will shut down the entire network.
    Bus topology
  42. A network topology in which data moves from terminal to terminal.
    Ring topology
  43. The most commonly used physical topology used in Ethernet LANs which is made up of a central connection point that is a device such as a hub, switch, router, or a server all cabling segments meet.
    Star Topology
  44. A system of rules and procedures that govern communication between two or more devices on a network.
    Protocol
  45. What are three basic elements of any communications protocol?
    • A character set
    • A set of rules for the sequence and timing of messages
    • Procedures for error detection and correction
  46. The character set of a communications protocol consists of what two subsets?
    • Printed characters (items meaningful to people)
    • Control characters (control information)
  47. What is the step by step process for data transmission for sending and receiving computer's protocols?
    • Sending computer protocol must:
    • -Recognize the data
    • -Divide it into manageable chunks
    • -Add information to determine its location and identify the receiver
    • -Add timing and error-checking information
    • -Put data on the network and send it

    • Receiving computer protocol must:
    • -Pull data off the network media
    • -Check timing and error-checking information
    • -Remove extra information
    • -Recombine data into the original message
    • -Recognize data for the proper program
  48. Term for a combination of protocols
    Protocol Stack
  49. The topmost layer of the OSI reference model, which relates to the services that directly support user applications, such as software for file transfers, database access and e-mail.
    Application layer
  50. Application-layer protocol that is a program in itself.
    File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  51. Application layer protocol that is used by most e-mail programs to redirect data to the network.
    Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
  52. An internet protocol (on application layer) by which World Wide Web pages are transmitted over networks.
    HTTP (Hypertext Transport Protocol)
  53. An internet protocol (on application layer) for monitoring networks and network components.
    SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
  54. An internet protocol (on application layer) for logging on to remote hosts and processing data locally.
    Telnet
  55. Protocol layer that  ensures that packets are delivered error free, in sequence, and without losses or duplications.
    Transport layer
  56. Protocol layer that provides flow control and error handling, and participates in solving problems concerned with the transmission and reception of packets.
    Transport layer
  57. Transport protocols are categorized into what two classifications based on the way data needs to be transported?
    • Connection Oriented
    • Connectionless Oriented
  58. Transport protocols that establish, maintain, and break a connection with the receiving system.
    Connection-Oriented protocols
  59. A connection-oriented transport layer protocol that provides reliable full-duplex data transmission.
    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  60. What are four protocols that use TCP?
    • FTP
    • HTTP
    • SMTP
    • DNS
  61. How does TCP establish connection for data transfer?
    Three-way handshake
  62. What are the three steps of the three-way handshake?
    • 1. The requestor sends a packet specifying the port number it plans to use and its initial sequence number (ISN) to the server.
    • 2. The server acknowledges with its ISN, which consists of the requestor's ISN plus 1.
    • 3. The requestor acknowledges the acknowledgement with the server's ISN, plus 1.
  63. TCP mechanism in which TCP transfers a continuous stream of bytes through the Internet.
    Stream Data Transfer
  64. TCP mechanism which guarantees that a stream of data sent from one machine is delivered through a data link to another machine without duplication or data loss.
    Reliability
  65. TCP mechanism to prevent network congestion by ensuring that transmitting devices do not overwhelm receiving devices with data.
    Flow Control
  66. What are three commonly used methods for handling network congestion?
    • Buffering
    • Source-quench Messages
    • Windowing
  67. Determines whether transmitted data has become corrupt or otherwise damaged while traveling from the to the destination.
    Error Control
  68. Used to reference the location of a particular application or process on each machine (in the application layer)
    Ports
  69. Well-known ports are controlled and assigned by who?
    The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
  70. "Well-known" ports occupy port numbers in what range?
    0-1023
  71. "Registered" ports are controlled by who?
    Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
  72. "Registered" ports occupy port numbers in what range?
    1024-49151
  73. Dynamic and/or Private Ports are in what range?
    49152-65535

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