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A system of independent computers that are interconnected to share data and resources.
Has resources associated with it, but nothing is shared with another system.
An inefficient way to share resources that involved information being placed on removable media and walked over to another system that requires the data.
Computers with hard drives that provide shared resources to the network users.
Computers that may or may not have a hard drive that access shared network resources provided by a server.
The wires or signaling that provide a path for communication.
Data provided to clients by servers across the network.
Any service or device, such as files, printers, or other items, made available for use by members of the network.
Networks are divided into what three basic configurations?
- -Centralized computing
- -Peer-to-peer networks
- -Server based networks
Network configuration in which users gain access to the network from dumb terminals and servers perform the majority of functions and store permanent data.
Network configuration that is also called workgroups and usually consists of 10 or less computers, each functioning as a "client" and a "server" and having no centralized hierarchy. Not good for large scale operations where security must be tight.
Peer to peer network
Network configuration that is also called a domain and provides centralized control of network resources. Designed for more large-scale operations that require more security.
Client/Server Based Network
What are the three categories of networks?
- Local Area Network (LAN)
- Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
- Wide Area Network (WAN)
What are 3 common LAN technologies?
- Ethernet (ThickNet, Thinnet, Unshielded Twisted Pair)
- Token Ring (Token)
- FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface)
What system for switching data is primarily a WAN technology and capable of transmitting data at more than 1 Gbps?
Synchronous optical network (SONET)
_______ is the standard for optical transport and is capable of transmitting data in excess of 1 Gbps.
Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)
Switching data system that is the equivalent of SONET and defines optical-carrier levels and electrical-equivalent synchronous transport signals and is the recommendation of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
Which switching method sends fixed-size packets over broadband and baseband LANs or WANs.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
Multiport devices that can act as either:
- hubs to forward data from one computer to another within a network
- router-like devices to forward data at high speeds to remote networks
The most popular physical network architecture in use today.
What does ethernet use to regulate network access?
Baseband (digital signaling) and Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)
A packet of information transmitted as a single unit.
List the three primary differences between the network mediums (cables).
Distance, cost and ease of installation
What are the four most common 10Mbps mediums?
Thinnet, using thin coaxial cable for a maximum length of 185 meters (10Mbps medium)
Thicknet, using thick coaxial cable for a maximum length of 500 meters (10Mbps medium)
Using UTP cable for a maximum length of 100 meters (10Mbps medium)
Using single or multi-mode fiber optic cable, the range can be extended with a Fiber Optic Inter-Repeater Link (FOIRL)
Four pairs of telephone twisted pair (voice) wire (Cat 3, 4, or 5 UTP) for a maximum length of 100 meters (100Mbps medium)
Two pairs of data grade twisted-pair wire (Cat 5 UTP or STP) for a maximum length of 100 meters (100Mbps medium)
Uses fiber optic cable and can span up to 2000 meters using full-duplex operation (100Mbps medium)
Four pairs of Category 5 or 6 UTP cable for a maximum length of 100 meters (1Gbps medium)
Two pairs of 150-ohm shielded twisted pair cable for a maximum length of 25 meters.
A short laser wavelength on multimode fiber optic cable for a maximum length of 550 meters (1Gbps medium)
A long wavelength for a "long haul" fiber optic cable for a maximum length of 10 kilometers (1Gbps medium)
An extended wavelength single-mode optical fiber for up to 100 kilometers (1Gbps medium)
The basic geometric layout of the network or the way in which the computers on the network are interconnected.
What are the two basic elements of network topologies?
Logical and Physical
The layout or actual appearance of the cabling scheme used on a network.
Describes how data flows through a network.
Simplest physical topology in which all devices are connected using a single cable (a trunk). A break in the trunk, backbone, or an unplugged cable in this topology will shut down the entire network.
A network topology in which data moves from terminal to terminal.
The most commonly used physical topology used in Ethernet LANs which is made up of a central connection point that is a device such as a hub, switch, router, or a server all cabling segments meet.
A system of rules and procedures that govern communication between two or more devices on a network.
What are three basic elements of any communications protocol?
- A character set
- A set of rules for the sequence and timing of messages
- Procedures for error detection and correction
The character set of a communications protocol consists of what two subsets?
- Printed characters (items meaningful to people)
- Control characters (control information)
What is the step by step process for data transmission for sending and receiving computer's protocols?
- Sending computer protocol must:
- -Recognize the data
- -Divide it into manageable chunks
- -Add information to determine its location and identify the receiver
- -Add timing and error-checking information
- -Put data on the network and send it
- Receiving computer protocol must:
- -Pull data off the network media
- -Check timing and error-checking information
- -Remove extra information
- -Recombine data into the original message
- -Recognize data for the proper program
Term for a combination of protocols
The topmost layer of the OSI reference model, which relates to the services that directly support user applications, such as software for file transfers, database access and e-mail.
Application-layer protocol that is a program in itself.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
Application layer protocol that is used by most e-mail programs to redirect data to the network.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
An internet protocol (on application layer) by which World Wide Web pages are transmitted over networks.
HTTP (Hypertext Transport Protocol)
An internet protocol (on application layer) for monitoring networks and network components.
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
An internet protocol (on application layer) for logging on to remote hosts and processing data locally.
Protocol layer that ensures that packets are delivered error free, in sequence, and without losses or duplications.
Protocol layer that provides flow control and error handling, and participates in solving problems concerned with the transmission and reception of packets.
Transport protocols are categorized into what two classifications based on the way data needs to be transported?
- Connection Oriented
- Connectionless Oriented
Transport protocols that establish, maintain, and break a connection with the receiving system.
A connection-oriented transport layer protocol that provides reliable full-duplex data transmission.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
What are four protocols that use TCP?
How does TCP establish connection for data transfer?
What are the three steps of the three-way handshake?
- 1. The requestor sends a packet specifying the port number it plans to use and its initial sequence number (ISN) to the server.
- 2. The server acknowledges with its ISN, which consists of the requestor's ISN plus 1.
- 3. The requestor acknowledges the acknowledgement with the server's ISN, plus 1.
TCP mechanism in which TCP transfers a continuous stream of bytes through the Internet.
Stream Data Transfer
TCP mechanism which guarantees that a stream of data sent from one machine is delivered through a data link to another machine without duplication or data loss.
TCP mechanism to prevent network congestion by ensuring that transmitting devices do not overwhelm receiving devices with data.
What are three commonly used methods for handling network congestion?
- Source-quench Messages
Determines whether transmitted data has become corrupt or otherwise damaged while traveling from the to the destination.
Used to reference the location of a particular application or process on each machine (in the application layer)
Well-known ports are controlled and assigned by who?
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
"Well-known" ports occupy port numbers in what range?
"Registered" ports are controlled by who?
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
"Registered" ports occupy port numbers in what range?
Dynamic and/or Private Ports are in what range?