Protection and safety

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
221975
Filename:
Protection and safety
Updated:
2013-06-01 23:31:00
Tags:
Immune Lymphatic infection antibiotics rheumatoid arthritis anaphylaxis
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Description:
Immune, Lymphatic, infection, antibiotics, rheumatoid arthritis, anaphylaxis
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  1. What do lymph vessels do?
    Transport lymph fluid which contains lymphocytes, macrophages, antigens, and collects excess fluid from the body tissues.
  2. Lymph fluid
    is transported to the lymph nodes where antigens are processed and killed.
  3. Lymph nodes
    removes antigens that circulate in the lymph fluid and blood.
  4. Spleen
    is an immunological filter of the blood. Contains B cells, T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, RBC'S.  Phagocytes engulf and destroy worn out or damaged RBC'S. Filters and removes bacteria/antigens.  Stores blood and platelets.
  5. What are the four types of T cells?
    • Cytotoxic T cells
    • Helper T cells 
    • Activated helper T cells 
    • Suppressor T cells
  6. Definition: Hypersensitivity
    Inappropriate excessive immune response.
  7. Definition: Autoimmunity
    Inappropriate response to self
  8. Definition: Allommunity
    Immunity to an alloantigen. Can occur after an allograph (transplant of body tissue) or allotransfusion (plasma, immunogloblin).
  9. Pathophysiology of lymphodema
    Lymphodema occurs when the lymph system is damaged or blocked. Fluid builds up in soft body tissues and causes swelling.
  10. What are the two types of lymphodema?
    Primary lymphedema is caused by the abnormal development of the lymph system. Symptoms may occur at birth or later in life.

    Secondary lymphedema is caused by damage to the lymph system. The lymph system may be damaged or blocked by infection, injury, cancer, removal of lymph nodes, radiation to the affected area, or scar tissue from radiation therapy or surgery.
  11. What are the signs and symptoms of Lymphodema?
    • Swelling in affected area
    • Feeling of fullness or tightness in limb
    • Aching, pain
    • Swelling 
    • Weakness
    • Trouble sleeping 
    • Thickening of the skin
  12. What is hypersensitivity type 1: Anaphylaxis?
    • An abnormal/hyper reactivity to a normal stimulus. 
    • Abnormal or pathological immune reaction that is caused by an immune response usually to a repeated exposure to an antigen.
  13. What is happening in the body.
    • Deregulation of mast cells and release of chemical mediators (heparin and histamine). 
    • Vasodilation and smooth muscle contraction.
    • Increased capillary permeability
    • Urticaria (hives)
    • Respiratory distress 
    • fluid shift 
    • Vascular collapse
  14. Onset
    Skin
    Respiratory 
    Cardiovascular
    Gastrointestinal 
    Neurological
    • Onset-Delay of 5 to 30 minutes
    • Skin-Red raised itchy rash, swelling
    • Respiratory-Noisy, maybe wheezy 
    • Cardiovascular-Tachycardia, hypertension
    • GI-Abnormal cramps
    • Neurological-Loss of consciousness, little response once prone.
  15. Treatment?
    Adrenaline, O2, IV access, fluid replacement, antihistamines, hydrocortisone.
  16. Adrenaline Doses.
    • Adrenaline 1:1000
    • Adult and child >12 = 0.5mg IM 
    • Child 6-12 = 0.3mg IM 
    • Child 6 months to 6 years = 0.15mg IM
    • Infant >6 months = 0.01mg IM 
    • Can repeat the dose at 5 minute intervals 

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