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Define Divine Right
The belief that a king/queens authority to rule came directly from God.
limited monaracy by a document
the adoption of western ideas, technology and culture
Edict of Nantes
A document issued by French Henry IV that protected the protestants by letting them fortify their towns and cities.
Ruling dynasty of France
The dynasty of Scottland that took over England after Elizabeth died. They went against Parliament and favored Divine Right.
Purssian dynasty that ruled scattered lands. They set up central Beureaucracy and gave more power to nobles.
Austrian Dynasty and Spain. United and strong. They added Bohemia, Hungary, parts of Poland and Italy.
Russian Dynasty that ruled from 1613-1917 that led Russian into becoming a modern, great world power
Describe life under Queen Elizabeth in Britain?
She consulted and controlled Parliament. She forbade discusiion of certain topics like foreign policy and her marriage. She controlled Parliment making her popular and succesful.
Why did the Stuart Kings have prolembs with Parliament/
The Stuarts wanted divine right. They needed money to wage war but Parliment did not want to give it to them. He was CAtholic and against the Protestants/Puritans. They imprisoned enemies without trials.
What caused the English Civil War?
The radical absolute rule of the Stuart family and the suppresion of Parliment.
What changes did Cromwell make in Britain?
- England became a republic
- He exiled Catholics
- He suppressed Levellers
- He made a Puritan Society (Holy Sunday, no theaters/taverns/gambling/dancing
- He enforced education
- He encouraged long-love based marriages
- He had limited religious toleration (No Catholics)
- HE crushed rebellion in Ireland
- He exiled Catholics in Ireland
Why was Louis XIV known as the Sun King?
The sun stands in the middle of the universe like the king stands in the middle of his nation.
What improvements did Louis XIV make to France?
- He increased bureaucracy and appointed intendants
- He created the strongest European army
- He increased culture
- He improved the French infrastructure with roads and canals
- He practiced mercantalism by taking over colonies
How did Peter the Great westernize Russia?
He disguised himself as a European traveler. He became an absolute monarch. He made them shave their beards and change EVERYTHING about their lives.
What were the results of the Thirty Years War?
Mercenaries killed mercilessly. The war caused depopulation. France won parts of Spain. The Netherlands and Switerzland became independant. Germany was divided into 360 states.
What difficulties did Maria Theresa face as the ruler of Austria?
She was the first female Hapsburg ruler. No one took her seriously. She was attaced by Prussia. She convinced the Hungarians, British and Russians to help her. She then reorganized bureaucracy and improved tax collection.
Describe the rule of Frederick the Great.
He captured the Austrian province of Silesia. He ruled Prussia. He had control over his subjects. He increased tech, science and agriculture. He was a harsh military leader. He started the war of Austrian sucession and took part in spliting up Poland.
Describew Louis XIVs Finance Minister Colberts positive contributions to Frances economy
- Cleared lands for farming
- Encounraged basic industry
- Built up luxury trades
- Put high tariffs on imported goods
- Encouraged growth with oversea colonies
- regulated colonies
Define Constitutional Government
Government whose power is defined and limited by law
Government headed by a privilged minority or upper class
Government in which a king or queen excercises central power
What did the Edict of Nantes significantly change in France?
The French Protestants (Hugenots) were now offered religious toleration. It was later revoked.
Describe the relationship between Queen Elizabeth I of England and Phillip II of Spain.
They hated each other. Elizabeth supported the Dutch against Spain. She encouraged pirates (sea dogs) to attack spanish ships and colonies. The Spanish navy attacked England but the weather worked against them.
List the Causes of England's Civil War in the 1600s.
The Stuars wanted divine Right. They clashed with Parliament about money and foreign affairs. They would disolve Parliament and collect taxes on their own. They imprisoned foes without trials and squeezed the nation for money. They did not sign the Petition of Right which prohibited them from raising taxes and false imprisonment. He led troops to the house of commons to arrest radical leaders.
Name the reasons Russia had been isolated from the West until Peter the Great's rule.
It was physicall isolated because it was in the East. The Renaissance and Reforrmation did not reach them because they were too unorganized. They were constantly invaded. Peter the Great explored Europe in order to modernize Russia.
What was the result of the Glorious Revolution of 1688?
The Glorious Revolution was the bloodless overthorw of James II. The result was a new king and queen who signed the Bill of Rights.
What did the Bill of Rights in England state?
Parliment is greater than Monarcy. The monarch had to regularly summon Parliament. It gave the house of commons power of the purse. Monarch could not interfere with Parliamentary debates or suspend laws. It kept a Roman Catholic from ruling the throne.
Describe the similar leadership experiences of Parliament in England, James I, Charles I, and James II. They all beleived in Divine Right and almost always clashed with Parliament.
What were the negative effects of Louis XIVs reign?
- He led many costly wars.
- He spent money on himself.
- He started the Edict of Nantes
What were reasons for the Thirty Years' War?
- Ferdinand sought to supress Protestants in all of the Holy Roman Empire.
- Proestants wanted to fight back.
Royal officials who collected taxes, recruited soldiers and carried out policies
Gropu that thought the poor should have as much say in the government as the rich. They wanted the right to petition Parliment.