Week 5

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Week 5
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  1. What does the acronym SCADA stand for?
    Supervisor Control And Data Aquisition
  2. A communications system which provides system operators the ability to monitor and control the flow of power in a given system.
    SCADA
  3. A planned sequence of actions or steps that are followed to accomplish some operation of the system such as clearing a line, transferring a load, etc.
    Switching orders
  4. What are three other names for switching orders?
    • Operating steps
    • Switching instructions
    • Switching log
  5. A unique situation where a clearance point for one crew's clearance is located within another clearance for a different crew.
    Overlapping clearance
  6. A formally recognized condition of a line, line section, or equipment that has been deenergized from all potential sources of energy by opening devices in the path or the potential flow of power.
    Clearance
  7. Any device, connector, or opening that is utilized to isolate the line or a piece of equipment from a potential source of power.
    Clearance point
  8. A clear visual air gap between the source and load terminals of a device.
    Visual clearance point
  9. Condition in which all potential sources of energy are isolated by opening devices in the path of the potential flow of power.  These devices are opened, checked open, locked if possible, and tagged.  Grounds are typically applied.
    Standard clearance
  10. Condition in which the main source of energy is opened deenergizing the line or piece of equipment; however, no visual opening is provided nor are personal protective grounds installed.
    Safety clearance
  11. Which type of clearance is specifically prohibited by some companies?
    Safety clearance
  12. The physical attachment of an approved visible tag to or near the device that has been opened  and will be utilized as a clearance point.
    Tagging
  13. The task of physically installing a device through a mechanism to prevent a device from being operated.
    Locking
  14. The line or equipment has power flowing through as a result of being connected to a source of energy.
    Energized
  15. The line or equipment does not have power flowing through is since the sources of power have been disconnected.
    Deenergized
  16. A highly skilled and knowledgeable individual who monitors and directs the operation of the power system.
    System operator
  17. What are five other terms for a clearance?
    • Hold off clearance
    • Working clearance
    • Lockout/tagout
    • Line clearance
    • Equipment clearance
  18. A location from which the system operators monitor and control the system.
    Operations Center
  19. Independent organizations that are responsible for assuring fair and open access to use the system.
    Regional Transmission Organization
  20. The area of responsibility for an operations center.
    Jurisdiction
  21. When determining jurisdiction, what two factors are taken into account?
    • The physical description of the elements of the system.
    • The geographical area in which the system is located.
  22. Incidents in which an error occurred when the system was being operated.
    Operating errors
  23. ____ ____ can potentially energize a line, line section, or piece of equipment that needs to be cleared to work on.
    Energy sources
  24. The majority of distribution poles are between ____ and ____ foot height range.
    • 35
    • 55
  25. _________ poles remain the most popular choice for pole lines.
    Wood
  26. _______ and _______ poles are being used in applications where the long-term benefits outweigh their higher initial cost.
    • Steel
    • Fiberglass
  27. The key element in the overhead distribution system used to reduce the voltage to a level that can be used by the customer.
    Transformers
  28. In the distribution system, protective equipment consists mainly of:
    • Fused cutout switches
    • Reclosers
    • Sectionalizers
    • Lightning arresters
  29. The protective equipment is designed and coordinated in a manner which distinguishes _________ from ________.
    • Temporary faults
    • Permanent faults
  30. Protects the main line, dips, transformers, and other equipment from faults that occur on a tap line.
    Fused cutout switches
  31. After a line is deenergized due to a temporary fault, this device energizes the lines again to minimize outage time.  In the case of a permanent fault, it will stop trying to restore power after no more than four attempts.
    Reclosers
  32. This device opens to separate the faulted section of line from the circuit.
    Sectionalizers
  33. Sectionalizers can be set to keep reclosers from reclosing into an underground fault because they are almost always a ________ ________.
    Permanent fault
  34. Voltage levels can be automatically controlled out on the line with the use of ______ ______.
    Voltage regulators
  35. Voltage regulators can increase or decrease the input voltage by ____ percent.
    10
  36. Voltage regulators are easily identified by the _________ ________ located at the top of the unit.
    dial indicator
  37. A device that is connected to a phase on one end, and to the pole ground, neutral, or both on the other end.  It diverts surges to ground in an attempt to protect lines and equipment.
    Lightning or surge arresters
  38. A device that introduces capacitive reactance to counteract the negative effects of inductive reactance, enabling more power to be delivered to the customer.
    Capacitors
  39. A device that is positioned throughout the main line that is capable of breaking load to all three phases at the same time.  It can be easily distinguished by it's operating handle.
    Gang-operated switches
  40. The two key classifications for the instalation of equipment in underground distribution.
    • Above grade or padmounted equipment
    • Below grade or subsurface equipment
  41. The public prefers subsurface equipment because of improved appearances but padmounted equipment is easier to _______ and _______.
    • maintain
    • operate
  42. The first underground cables consisted of:
    A paper lined lead conductor.
  43. Name the parts of an underground cable.
    • Conductor
    • Semi-conducting conductor shield
    • Ethylene Propylene Rubber (EPR) Insulation
    • Semi-conducting conductor shield (book says conductor shield again....)
    • Concentric copper shield wire (or neutral)
    • Polyethylene (PE) Jacket
  44. When referring to conduit, the book discusses four ways cables are buried, discuss each.
    • Most cables are installed in PVC conduit.
    • Some cables are directly buried.
    • Steel conduit is used for mainlines in substations or where extra protection is warranted.
    • A continuous one-piece conduit is extruded over the cable, or cable in conduit, which increases the efficiency of installation.
  45. A broadly used term to classify various types of concrete, fiberglass, or composite-type housings which are used to splice or terminate cables or house equipment.
    Enclosures
  46. Large subsurface concrete structure that house heavy cable or equipment.
    Manholes
  47. An above ground structure used to splice low voltage secondary and service conductors.
    Pedestals
  48. The type of distribution where it is more common to use three single-phase transformers to provide three phase service.
    Overhead
  49. The type of distribution where three single-phase transformers are combined into one three-phase unit to provide a three-phase service.
    Underground
  50. A term that is used to identify a pole where there is a transition from an underground circuit to an overhead circuit.
    Riser
  51. When a utility serves a city or county, the typical arrangement to install facilities is a _______ _______.
    franchise agreement
  52. Independent distribution circuits that come from the substation into the service area.  If a permanent fault occurs, or a line needs to be cleared, there is no opportunity to restore power from another source.
    Radial Circuit Design
  53. Circuits that are connected to other circuits from the same substation.  Power can be supplied from other circuits should a section of line need to be cleared.
    Radial Tie Circuit Design
  54. Circuits in metropolitan areas where the primary and secondary circuits are tied together in a grid.
    Network Grid Design
  55. A distribution circuit where service is not affected if one transformer fails, it is automatically disconnected and the load is carried by other transformers.
    Network Grid Design
  56. The distribution circuit that is the most reliable and most expensive.
    Network Grid Design
  57. The method of working on lines where lineworkers must take precautions to see that they are insulated or isolated from any flow of power that could travel through their bodies.
    Energized
  58. The method of working on lines that requires precautionary procedures to ensure that sources of energy are isolated and the line does not inadvertently become energized.
    Deenergized
  59. If you find a discrepancy in any maps while working in the field you should always report them to the _______ _______ and the engineering department so that changes can be made.
    System Operator
  60. What are the three major objectives when clearing lines and equipment?
    • To assure the safety of employees clearing the lines and those who will be working on them.
    • To minimize the impact to reliability and capacity of the system.
    • To minimize the number of customers who will be out of power.
  61. Three potential sources of energy that are typically isolated to work on lines or equipment.
    • Power flow from the same circuit or line.
    • Power flow from a different circuit or line.
    • Power flow from a foreign generator.
  62. One of the most common clearance points which are typically locked in the open position.  These switches are gang operated, and all phases can be visually confirmed as open.  These switches can be manual hook operated, manual handle operated, or motor operated.
    Air Switches
  63. Clearances should not overlap or share ______ _______.
    clearance points
  64. A fused or solid, hook style disconnect that is commonly used as a clearance point.
    Single blade disconnect
  65. The book gives 5 examples of common clearance points, what are they?
    • Air Switches
    • Single blade disconnects
    • Line reclosers
    • Open jumpers
    • Open in-line sectionalizers
  66. A continued flow of electrons, which is not interrupted when the contacts first part.
    Electric arc
  67. If a device is unable to extinguish an arc, what consequences could occur?
    • The arc will seek a path to ground.
    • The arc will seek a path to phase.
    • The device will be destroyed.
    • Any combination of or all of the above.
  68. Why do capacitors improve the efficiency of a circuit?
    They reduce the flow of power that does not perform any useful function.
  69. Where would you typically expect to find a lightning arrester in a circuit?
    • On a transformer pole
    • Riser pole
    • Other poles with equipment mounted on them
  70. How is jurisdiction normally established?
    By the ownership of the system.
  71. What do Regional Transmission Organizations typically have jurisdiction over?
    Major bulk power transmission and generation elements.
  72. System Operations Centers are a central point for any associated incoming and outgoing communications, including _____, ______, and ______.
    • Data
    • Voice
    • Control
  73. Extinguishing an electric arc is typically accomplished by what two methods?
    • Increasing the distance the arc must travel.
    • Cooling the arc path and replacing the ionized gas with an insulated material (gas, oil, or vacuum).
  74. In regards to a transformer, what does CSP stand for?
    Completely Self Protected
  75. On a CSP transformer, what does the secondary circuit breaker do?
    It de-energizes the secondary bushings, and only the secondary bushings.
  76. How is a CSP transformer different from a conventional transformer?
    The CSP transformer has a lightning arrester attached to it, it has an internal current limiting fuse, and a secondary circuit breaker.  The conventional transformer relies on external fused cutout switches and LA's.
  77. What is the most widely used piece of equipment in the distribution system?
    The transformer
  78. What are three types of single blade cutout switches?
    • Fused cutout switches
    • Load break cutout switches
    • Solid blade cutout switches
  79. What causes a fuse to blow?
    Excessive amperage creates heat.
  80. What conditions must be known to control the flow of power from the generator to the customer?
    • Which lines and equipment are energized and de-energized.
    • How much power is flowing through the system, where is it coming from and going.
    • What is the voltage and load at certain key points in the system.
    • How much power will be needed to meet the system load.
    • The frequency of the system.
  81. A clearance where people will not be working on the line.
    Safety clearance
  82. A clearance where people will be working on the line.
    Standard clearance
  83. An insulated link that is spanned with a jumper, often referred to as a "flying bell" or "span open."
    Open in-line sectionalizer
  84. Underground construction is generally _____ times more expensive per mile than overhead.
  85. What is underground distribution immune from?
    • High winds
    • Ice
    • Trees
    • Etc.
  86. What combination of equipment is commonly place in a pad-mounted equipment case to help increase the reliability of the circuit?
    Switches and fuses.
  87. Pole lines must be designed for the proper strength and clearances for all utilities as required by the _____?
    National Electric Safety Code
  88. What are the two most common 3-phase low voltages used in the Network Grid Design?
    120/208 and 277/480 volts
  89. What does OSHA require regarding tagging?
    • All known sources of electrical power must be opened (switches, jumpers, taps, etc.), locked if they can be, and tagged.
    • Any automatic or remote controls must be tagged at the point of control and the remote or automatic function must be disabled if possible.
  90. Does OSHA require a visual open clearance?
    No but most companies to.
  91. In regards to the impact of clearing lines and equipment, what are the two major types of clearances?
    • Where there is no load that needs to be transferred or the customer is shut down.
    • When the load going through a line or equipment must be transferred from another source.

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