Science 7th Grade Final

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Science 7th Grade Final
2013-06-02 22:25:25
arteries plasma atria platelets circulation immunity cell function membrane cytoplasm mitochondrion

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  1. Characteristics of Life
    Mrs. C Gren (move, respire, sense, cells, grow, reproduce, excrete, nutrition)
  2. cell theory
    • All organisms are composed of cells.
    • The cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living organisms.
    • Cells come from pre-existing cells
  3. Mitosis
    • nuclear division that makes exact copies of the bodies cells.
    • PMAT - (Prophase,Metaphase,Anaphase,Telophase)
  4. cell parts and types of cells
    • unicellular-multicellular
    • autotroph-heterotroph
    • prokaryotic-eukaryotic
  5. cell parts (organelles)
    • Cell membrane:regulates what goes in and out of the cell.
    • Cell Wall:structure of a plant cell.
    • Nucleus:controls functions of cells and contains genetic material
    • Cytoplasm:fluid that surround a plants organells
    • Mitochondrion:converts energy into food for the cell
    • Chloroplast:Where photosynthesis happens
    • Vacuole (storage)
    • Plant cells differ from animals in structure and function from:
    • Cell walls
    • Chloroplasts
    • large vacuoles
  6. Organization
    cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms
  7. Functions of systems
    • Circulatory:keeps blood,oxygen,and nutrients flowing through the body.
    • Respiratory:to take in oxygen for the body and spit out carbon dioxide.
    • Digestive:Turning food into energy for the body.
    • Nervous:send signals from one cell to another to make the body work.
    • Excretory:rid the body of wastes.
    • Skeletal:frame for the body.
    • Muscular:permits movement of the body.
    • Integumentary:protects the body from damage.
    • Endocrine:secretes hormones into the blood stream.
    • Reproductive:creates an offspring to carry on life of that species.
    • Immune:protects body form viruses
  8. Internal and External stimuli
    • response to stimuli:
    • Presence of light(phototropism,pupil dialotion)
    • Presence or absence of heat(shivering,sweating/panting,transpiration)
    • Fear(fight or flight)
    • Gravity(geotropism)
    • Hereditary:passing of genetic instructions from one generation to the next.
  9. Reproduction
    • Genetic material is given form only one parent.
    • Offspring are identical (uniform) to the parent and to each other.
    • Disadvantages-lack of diversity decreases chances of survival of species
  10. Sexual Reproduction
    • Genetic material is donated from two parents
    • Genetic material from two parents allows for more genetic variation in the offspring
    • Offspring differ from each parent and from each other. 
    • Advantages-diversity increases chances of survival of species
  11. Punnett Squares
    • Dominant vs. Recessive
    • Genotypes vs. Phenotypes
    • Homozygous vs. Heterozygous
  12. Cells (Genetic Material)
    • DNA
    • Genes
    • Chromosomes 
    • Inherited traits of organisms are passed from parents to the offspring through genes
    • Genes code for dominant and recessive traits
    • Genes determine traits
    • Genes are composed of DNA

    Use dichotomous keys to identify organisms (leaves and/or insects) based on their structures.
  13. Variation within a population or species
    • External features and physiology (animal examples: appendages, mouth structures, camouflage) (Plant examples: storage of food in a bulb, types of roots, types of leaves, seed dispersal, attraction of pollinators)
    • Behaviors (migration, hibernation, phototropism, geotriopism)
  14. Recognize changes in genetic traits through:
    • Adaptation
    • Natural selection
    •   Galapagos Iguanas
    •   Galapagos Medium Finch (size and shape of beaks)
    • Selective breeding (domestic animals)