HIV. Infection Controls

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nando54321
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222042
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HIV. Infection Controls
Updated:
2013-06-02 15:23:29
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Multiple choice
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  1. The HIV is acquired in non-occupational settings either across mucous membranes or parenterally by?

    a.unprotected penetrative sex between men

    b.unprotected heterosexual intercourse

    c.injection drug use d.All of the above.
    d. All of the above.
  2. Which of the following statements with respect to the prevalence or incidence of the HIV infections in the United States is correct?

    a.The prevalence of HIV infection (estimated to be 1.2 million) is higher than ever.

    b.The annual number of new HIV infections (estimated to be about 47,500) has remained stable in recent years.

    c.The rate of new infections for whites is 8.7, for Hispanics/Latinos it is 27.5, and for blacks/African Americans it is 68.9 per 100,000.

    d.All of the above.
    d.All of the above.
  3. All of the following statements with respect to the pattern of disease progression are correct except which one?

    a. After an incubation period of 1 to 3 weeks, 50 to 80 percent of patients experience an ill-defined Acute Retroviral Syndrome.

    b.Non-specific signs and symptoms associated with primary infection include malaise, lethargy, and a sore throat, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, photophobia, maculopapular rash and lymphadenopathy.

    c. During the period of clinical latency, which typically lasts 10 years, the patient is usually free of overt illness.

    d. The final phase is characterized by the appearance of AIDS-defining conditions.
    c. During the period of clinical latency, which typically lasts 10 years, the patient is usually free of overt illness
  4. Which of the following oral conditions have been demonstrated to be positive predictors of HIV-associated disease progression?

    a.Oral candidiasis

    b.Hairy leukoplakia

    c.Salivary gland disease

    d.A and B
    d.A and B
  5. The diagnosis of HIV infection is established
    by which of the following method?

    A.   
    Positive result from an HIV antibody screening test (e.g.,
    reactive enzyme immunoassay [EIA]).

    B.   
    Positive EIA confirmed by a positive result from a supplemental
    HIV antibody test (e.g., Western blot or indirect immunofluorescence assay
    test).

    C.   
    Positive result from any of the following HIV virologic tests:
    PCR, HIV p24 antigen test, or HIV isolation.

    D.   
    B and C
    • D.   
    • B and C
  6. A confirmed care of HIV infection classified
    as HIV infection, stage 2, meets which of the following criteria except which
    one?

    A.   
    No AIDS-defining
    conditions.

    B.   
    At least one of the AIDS-defining conditions has been
    documented.

    C.   
    No information on AIDS-defining conditions.

    D.   
    No information on CD4+ T-lymphocyte count or percentage.
    A.   No AIDS-defining conditions.
  7. Which of the following statements concerning
    antiretroviral drug therapy is not true?

    A.   
    HIV infection is treated
    with single antiretroviral agent.

    B.   
    ART for treatment-naïve patients may be NNRTI-based or PI-based.

    C.   
    The treatment of injection drug users, HIV infected women of
    reproductive age and pregnant women, and patients with co-infections (HBV, HCV,
    tuberculosis) require special ART.

    D.   
    Increases in viral load while the patient is on ART may indicate
    drug resistance.
    A.  HIV infection is treated with single antiretroviral agent.
  8. Which of the following is a required element
    for the transmission of infectious agents in healthcare settings?

    A.   
    A source of reservoir of infectious agents.

    B.   
    A susceptible host with a portal of entry receptive of the
    agent.

    C.   
    A mode of transmission for the agent.

    D.   
    All of the above.
    D.   All of the above.
  9. Which of the following statements are correct
    with respect to contact transmission?

    A.   
    Direct transmission occurs when blood or other potentially
    infectious material from an infected person directly enters the body of a
    susceptible person through contact with mucous membrane or break in the skin.

    B.   
    Indirect transmission occurs when the hands of HCWs transmit
    pathogens after touching an infected body site on one patient, inanimate
    object, on a contaminated environmental surface and hand hygiene is not
    performed before touching another patient.

    C.   
    Indirect transmission occurs when patient-care devices,
    contaminated with blood or OPIM are shared between patients without being
    adequately cleaned, disinfected, or sterilized.

    D.   
    All of the above.
    D.   All of the above.
  10. All of the following statements are correct
    with respect to droplet transmission except which one?

    A.   
    Droplets are particles of moisture greater than 5μm, containing potentially infectious organisms.

    B.   
    Droplet transmission is generally limited to distances beyond 3 feet of the source of infectious particles.

    C.   
    Exposure to pathogens in droplets constitutes a form of contact
    transmission.

    D.
    Droplet transmission may include contact of a susceptible host with contaminated
    intermediate objects or environmental surfaces
    • B.   
    • Droplet transmission is generally limited to distances beyond 3 feet of the source of infectious particles.
  11. Which of the following statements related to
    patient-to-provider transmission of HIV is correct?

    A.   
    No cases of occupational HIV transmission to HCWs in the United
    States have been documented since 1999.

    B.   
    The average risk for HIV infection after percutaneous exposure
    is estimated to be approximately 0.3% (I infection associated with 2,885
    exposures).

    C.   
    The average risk for HIV infection after mucous membrane (eyes,
    nose, and mouth) exposure is estimated to be approximately 0.09%.

    D.   
    All of the above.
    D.   All of the above.
  12. Which of the following statements related to provider-to-patient
    transmission of HIV is correct?

    A.   
    Since HIV was isolated 25 years ago, only 4 instances of HIV
    transmission from infected provider to patient have been documented worldwide
    and no cases have been reported since 2003.

    B.   
    The U.S. cluster involved a dentist, although the precise
    mechanisms of transmission were never determined and no data were uncovered
    suggesting intentional transmission.

    C.   
    More than 4 dozen look-back studies have been conducted and none
    of these studies identified evidence of provider-to-patient transmission.

    D.   
    All of the above.
    D.   All of the above.
  13. Which of the following statements are relevant
    with respect to HIV-related precautions in healthcare settings?

    A.   
    In the United States, the proportion of persons who do not know
    that they are infected with the HIV is estimated to be 20%.

    B.   
    Standard Precautions have been confirmed as effective to prevent
    exposure to infected blood or OPIM.

    C.   
    Standard Precautions constitutes the primary strategy for the
    prevention healthcare-associated transmission of HIV.

    D.   
    All of the above.
    D.   All of the above.
  14. The first step in managing a percutaneous
    wound to the finger is _______________.

    A.   
    to inject the wound with an antiseptic

    B.   
    to squeeze the wound to express fluid

    C.   
    to flush the wound with water

    D.   
    to wash the wound with
    soap and water
    D.   to wash the wound with soap and water
  15. 1.   
    All of the following statements concerning
    post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for healthcare worker potentially exposed to
    HIV are true except which one?

    A.   
    PEP should be initiated as soon as possible, preferably within 2
    hours of exposure.

    B.   
    For HIV exposures that warrant PEP, a basic 4 week, two-drug
    regimen is recommended.

    C.   
    If PEP is initiated and the source is ultimately determined to
    be HIV negative, PEP is discontinued.

    D.   
    PEP has been shown to be
    100% effective in preventing HIV infection.
    D.   PEP has been shown to be100% effective in preventing HIV infection.
  16. 1.   
    Methods to monitor for PEP toxicity include:

    A.   
    Renal and liver function tests.

    B.   
    Self-monitoring for adverse reactions.

    C.   
    Complete blood count.

    D.   
    All of the above.
    D.   All of the above.
  17. 1.   
    In managing a possible occupational HIV
    exposure, testing of the healthcare worker for HIV seroconversion is indicate

    A.   
    at baseline, 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year

    B.   
    at baseline, 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year

    C.   
    at baseline, 6 weeks, 12
    weeks, and 6 months

    D.   
    at baseline, 12 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year
    C.   at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months
  18. 1.   
    Elements of post-exposure counseling and
    education for a potential HIV exposure include:

    A.   
    Education on potential signs and symptoms of acute HIV
    infection.

    B.   
    The need to avoid donating blood.

    C.   
    Precautions to prevent secondary spread through sex.

    D.   
    All of the above.
    D.   All of the above.
  19. 1.   
    Which of the following statements is correct
    with respect of SHEA guidelines to minimize provider-to-patient transmission of
    HIV in healthcare settings?

    A.   
    Infected healthcare providers should not be totally prohibited
    from patient care solely on the basis of an infection with HIV.

    B.   
    Clinical privileges should be graduated according to the
    likelihood of procedure-related provider-to-patient transmission of these
    pathogens.

    C.   
    Clinical privileges should be graduated according to the
    relative viral load of the infected provider.

    D.   
    All of the above.
    D.   All of the above.
  20. 1.   
    Which of the following statements is correct
    relative to the responsibilities of an infected healthcare provider?

    A.   
    Routine voluntary, confidential testing of providers is
    encouraged.

    B.   
    A clinician in private practice who develops HIV infection is
    ethically bound to report it to the local health department.

    C.   
    Healthcare providers infected with HIV should have their
    clinical status and laboratory data evaluated by an Expert Review Panel
    convened in congruence with state and local laws.

    D.   
    All of the above.
    D.   All of the above.

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