Anatomy Muscles Arms and Legs

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Tainted_Fool
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222095
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Anatomy Muscles Arms and Legs
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2013-06-02 19:41:24
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Anatomy Muscles Arms Legs
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Anatomy Muscles Arms and Legs
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  1. Biceps Branchii
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Coracoid process, supraglenoid tubercle of scapula
    • Radial tuberosity
    • Flexes elbow, supinates forearm
    • Note: Two-headed muscle (2 origins)
  2. Brachialis
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Distal anterior humerus
    • Coronoid process of ulna
    • Flexes forearm
    • Note: Immediately deep to b. brachii, relatively short muscle.
  3. Triceps Brachii
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Infraglenoid tubercle of scapula, posterior humerus
    • Olecranon process of the ulna
    • Extends forearm
    • Note: Three-headed (3 origins) muscle, relatively very large in the cat
    • Note: Cut and reflect the flat, broad epitrochlearis to see this
  4. Brachioradialis
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
    • Styloid process of radius
    • Flexes forearm
    • Note: Relatively thin, may be mistaken for a tendon in cat. Unlike the above, spans the forearm and arm.
    • Note: In the human, it’s the lateral bulge that’s pronounced when you flex the forearm. It originates well up in the arm, travels posteriorly, yet can be readily seen on the anterior-lateral surface
  5. Pronator Teres
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Medial epicondyle of humerus
    • Lateral radius
    • Pronates and flexes forearm
  6. Flexor Carpi Radialis
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Medial epicondyle of humerus
    • Base of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals- tendon easily seen to guide taking pulse of radial artery
    • Flexes wrist; abducts hand
  7. Palmaris Longus
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Medial epicondyle of humerus
    • Palmar aponeurosis (This is a broad, flat tendon on the palm of your hand.)
    • Tenses skin and fascia of palm; weak flexor of wrist
  8. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Medial epicondyle of humerus
    • Pisiform and hamate and fith metacarpal
    • Flexes wrist, adducts hand
  9. Extensor Carpi Radialis (longus and brevis)
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Longus - supracondylar ridge of humerus Brevis - lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • Longus - base of 2nd metacarpal Brevis - base of 3rd metacarpal
    • Extends and abducts wrist
  10. Extensor Digitorum
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Lateral epicondyle of the humerus
    • Posterior surfaces of distal phalanges of digits 2-5 (Note the four tendons that extend to these digits.)
    • Extends fingers and wrist, abducts fingers
  11. Extensor "Digiti" Minimi
    Action?
    • Extends 5th digit
    • Note: This is actually a detached portion of the extensor digitorum
  12. Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • 5th metacarpal
    • Extends and adducts wrist
  13. Psoas Major
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Lumbar vertebrae
    • Lesser trochanter of the femur
    • Prime mover in thigh flexion and in flexing trunk
  14. Iliacus
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Iliac fossa
    • Lesser trochanter of the femur
    • Prime mover in thigh flexion and in flexing trunk
  15. Sartorius
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Anterior superior iliac spine
    • Tibia
    • Flexes, abducts and laterally rotates thigh; flexes knee
    • Note: Obvious difference between this muscle in cat and human. In humans, it is more narrow and straplike. (“sartor” = “tailor”)
  16. Pectineus
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Pubis
    • Posterior femur
    • Adducts, flexes and medially rotates thigh
  17. Adductor Longus
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Pubis near pubic symphysis
    • Linea aspera
    • Adducts, flexes and medially rotates thigh
  18. Adductor Femoris (Adductor Magnus in humans)
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Ischium and pubis
    • Linea aspera of femur
    • Adducts, flexes and medially rotates thigh
  19. Gracilis
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Pubis
    • Medial tibia
    • Flexes knee and adducts and medial rotates thigh
  20. Rectus Femoris
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Anterior inferior iliac spine
    • Patella and tibial tuberosity
    • Extends knee and flexes thigh at hip
    • Note: In cats, analogous to a “hot dog in a bun,” with the “bun” being the vastus muscles
  21. Vastus Lateralis
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Greater trochanter
    • Patella and tibial tuberosity
    • Extends knee
  22. Vastus Medialis
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Linea aspera
    • Patella and tibial tuberosity
    • Extends knee
  23. Vastus Intermedius
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Proximal femur
    • Patella and tibial tuberosity
    • Extends knee
    • Note: Reflect the rectus femoris to see this. Appears flat with obvious tendon sheath
  24. Tensor Fasciae Latae
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Iliac crest and anterior superior iliac spine
    • Iliotibial tract-The fascia lata that ensheathes all the muscles of the thigh
    • Steadies trunk on thigh
    • Note: Will appear as a small muscle with a long aponeurosis
  25. Gluteus Maximus
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Ilium, sacrum, coccyx
    • Gluteal tuberosity of femur
    • Major extensor of thigh
  26. Gluteus Medius
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Ilium
    • Greater trochanter of the femur
    • Abduction and medial thigh rotation
  27. Biceps Femoris
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Ischial tuberosity and femur
    • Fibula and tibia
    • Extends thigh, flexes knee
    • Note: Very large, most lateral of the group
  28. Semitendinosus
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Ischial tuberosity
    • Medial aspect of proximal tibia
    • Extends thigh, flexes knee
    • Note: Thinner, more tendon (rope)-like than the semimembranosus, Superficial to semimembranosus
  29. Semimenbranosus
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Ischial tuberosity
    • Medial condyle of tibia
    • Extends thigh, flexes knee
    • Note: Deep to semimembranosus, and larger and more broad (Think “membrane”). Can be seen posteriorly, and anteriorly just inferior to the large adductor femoris
  30. Gastrocnemius
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Medial and lateral condyles of femur
    • Via calcaneal (Achilles) tendon onto calcaneus
    • Plantarflexes foot; flexes lower leg
    • Note: Two prominent bellies that form the curve of the calf, Superficial to soleus muscle
  31. Soleus
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Head of fibula and tibia
    • Via calcaneal (Achilles) tendon onto calcaneus
    • Plantarflexes foot
  32. Tibialis Anterior
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Lateral condyle and tibial shaft
    • Medial cuneiform and first metatarsal
    • Prime mover of dorsiflexion
  33. Fibularis (peroneus) longus
    Origin?
    Insertion?
    Action?
    • Head of fibula
    • Medial cuneiform and first metatarsal
    • Plantarflexion and foot eversion
    • Note: Has a long tendon that curves under the foot to its insertion

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