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What is the blood brain barrier?
Protective barrier. Prevents some substances in the blood from entering the brain. Blood vessels of the brain are much more impermeable to large molecules than blood vessels elsewhere in the body
The anatomy of the BBB?
- Semi permeable endothelial cells fit tightly together and substances cannot pass out of the bloodstream.
- Glial cells-astrocytes form a layer around brain blood vessels and are important in the development of BBB.
- Circumventricular organs=areas in BBB of the brain where it's weak. The brain monitors the blood through these areas.
What is the function of the BBB?
- Protects the brain from foreign substances eg bacteria in the blood.
- Protects brain from hormones and neurotransmitters.
- Maintains a constant environment for the brain.
- Large molecules do not pass through BBB easily.
- Low lipid and water soluble molecules do not penetrate into the brain.
- Molecules that have high electric charge are slowed.
What is a neuron?
Basic functional units of the nervous system. Transmit messages from one part of the body to another using ATP.
What is ATP?
An electrical event occurring when a stimulus is applied to an neuron allowing Na ions to move into the cell and reverse the polarity.
What is the Na - K pump?
- A mechanism of active transport that moves potassium ions into and sodium ions out of a cell.
What is a synapse?
- Region of communication between neurons.
- 1) Presynaptic cell which has the synaptic terminal sends a message.
- 2) Postsynaptic cell which receives the message.
- Communication between cells at a synapse commonly involves the release of neurotransmitters by the synaptic terminal.
What are Neurotransmitters?
Chemicals released by neurons that may upon binding to receptors of neurons or effector cells stimulate or inhibit them. Allow the transmission of signals from one neuron to the next across synapses.
What is schizophrenia?
- A group of psychotic disorders:
- -Disordered and disorganised though processes.
- -Altered perceptions, speech, emotions & behaviours.
- -Significant difficulty in psychosocial and occupational functioning.
- -Usually chronic which acute exacerbations.
- -Variable in intensity and frequency.
- -Symptoms usually positive or negative.