Relating to non-living parts of an environment such as sunlight, soil, moisture, and temperature.
Mixing with air; one method used to reduce run-off is to mechanically remove small plugs of soil to improve air and water flow through the soil.
The development of a number of new species from a common ancestor; the new species are adapted to inhabit different niches
The gradual build-up of synthetic and organic chemicals in living organisms.
The breaking down of dead organic matter by living organisms such as bacteria.
The largest division of the biosphere, which includes large regions with similar biotic components and similar abiotic components.
Relating to living organisms such as plants, animals, fungi, and other bacteria.
A mature community, such as a boreal forest, tropical rainforest, grassland, or desert, that continues to change over time.
A symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other species is neither helped nor harmed.
Organisms that break down wastes and dead organisms and change them into usable nutrients available to other organisms.
The process in which nitrogen is returned to the atmosphere.
Changes that take place over time in the types of organisms that live in an area.
A part of a biome in which abiotic components interact with biotic components.
A model that shows the flow of energy from plant to animal and from animal to animal.
A model that shows the loss of energy from one trophic level to another; often called an ecological pyramid.
A model of the feeding relationships within an ecosystem; formed from interconnected food chains.
Metallic elements with high density that are toxic to organisms at low concentration.
Species that can greatly affect population numbers and the health of an ecosystem.
Natural electric discharge of high voltage between a cloud and the ground or within a cloud
A symbiotic relationship between two organisms in which both organisms benefit.
The process in which ammonium(NH4-) is converted into nitrate (NO3+).
The process in which, over time, the best-adapted members of a species will survive and reproduce. This process makes change in living things possible.
Substances such as the chemicals nitrogen and phosphorus that are required by plants and animals for energy, growth, development, repair, or maintenance; important components of nutrient cycles in the biosphere.
A symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and another is harmed
polychlorinated biphenyls- Synthetic chemicals containing chlorine that are used in the manufacture of plastics and other industrial products, become stored in the tissue of animals, and also persist in the environment.
A general term for chemicals that are used to climate pets, such as insecticides that kill insects and herbicides that kill weeds.
A figure expressing the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a logarithmic scale on which 7 is neutral, lower values are more acid, and higher values more alkaline.
The chemical element of atomic number 15, a poisonous, combustible non-metal.
A process which carbon dioxide enters the leaves of plants and reacts with water in the presence of sunlight to produce carbohydrates and oxygen; photosynthesis also occurs in some micro-organisms.
The chemical element of atomic number 19, a soft, silvery-white reactive metal of the alkali metal group.
Predator-prey interactions in which one organism (the predator) eats all or part of another organisms (the prey).
Rapid reduction of a cell, part or an organism.
The interaction between members of two different species that live together in a close association.
Steps in a food chain that show feeding and niche relationships among organisms.