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Nuclear morphology of cancer cells?
Normal Nuclear to Cytoplasm Ratio
1:4 or 1:6
Nuclear to Cytoplasm Ratio in Cancer Cells
Morphology of Mitosis is Cancer Cells
Atypical, Bizzare with multipolar spindles
Loss of uniformity of individual cells as well as their structural organisation.
Smallest detectable clinical mass of tumor?
1g or 10^9 cells
Number of doublings to produce a clinically detectable mass?
Additional doubling to produce 1kg mass?
No. of cells in 1kg mass?
Factors determining rate of growth of tumor?
1. Doubling time of cells
2.Fraction of tumor in replicative pool
3. Rate at which cells shed or die
Growth fraction and chemotherapy
Higher the growth fraction more response to chemotherapy cause the drugs act on cells that are in cell cycle.
Features of Anaplasia and Differentiation